Minggu, 09 Mei 2010

Stick to Customer

Stick to Customer Service seperti:
1. Meningkatkan kecepatan pencucian. Kalau mesin hanya 10menit, mungkin
kalau manual bisa 15 atau 20 menit maximum. Otomatis harus resourcesnya
ditambah, tetapi trial error saja dulu di satu line terlebih dahulu
2. Karyawan tidak diperbolehkan menerima TIPS. (be professional)
3. Pasang stiker pada setiap mobil tetapi dengan meminta ijin dari yang
punya mobil.
4. Untuk tetangga2 sebelah, diajak dengan diskon 20%
5. Pasang nomor HP anda sebagai call center complaint
6. Bukalah pagi-pagi sekali, dimana banyak orang kantor akan berangkat.
Tetapi surveilah terlebih dahulu, jangan gegabah.
7. Sabtu Minggu buka, senin boleh tutup.
8. Buatlah keychain atau tempat tissue dengan brand anda. (dgn harapan
teman2nya dapat melihat dengan jelas di kotak tissue bahwa brand anda
jelas terpampang.
9. Rajin2 masuk di komunitas dan milis untuk berpromosi secara gratis.
(tidak menjamin traffic)
10. Pasanglah kasir & greeters cewek yang lumayan berparas. Sehingga
pada waktu masuk pertama kali, customer akan disapa dengan smile dan
paras imut dan ramah sekali seperti di rumah / seperti bossnya sendiri,
maka buat lah mereka seakan dirumah sendiri.
11. Tambahkan layanan vacuum (tambah uang) dan poles
12. Sediakan hot chocolate, kopi, sebagai teman mereka menanti
13. Sediakan majalah terbaru, koran bisnis, swa, dll lakukan survey
mereka adalah orang bisnis man, atau ibu rumah tangga, hobi mereka,
sesuaikan, maka mereka akan ke tempat cuci, sekalian baca gratis...

ini hanya sharing saja. semoga bermanfaat. Surveilah terlebih dahulu
competitor anda, buatlah something yang unik, jangan meniru, akibatnya
akan bersaing tidak wajar.


Charles Peter Wagner (born 1930) is a former professor of Church Growth at Fuller Theological Seminary School of World Mission. He coined the Christian idiom Third Wave. He is the founder of Global Harvest Ministries, and co-founder of the World Prayer Center.

Wagner and his wife, Doris, live in Colorado Springs and were attending New Life Church in 2004. However, as of 2006 they were attending Dutch Sheet's "Freedom Church". They have three adult children, and seven grandchildren.

Life and ministry

From 1956-1971 the Wagners were missionaries with the South American Mission and Andes Evangelical Mission where they ministered in Bolivia.

In 1971 Wagner became a professor of Church Growth at the School of Intercultural Studies (formerly School of World Mission), a part of Fuller Theological Seminary. He and Donald McGavran established the school as a popular and influential organisation within the Evangelical, Pentecostal and Charismatic movements internationally.

In 1981 Wagner replaced McGavran as head of the faculty. Wagner retired from his position there in 1998 to focus on his own areas of ministry.

In 1982 Wagner teamed up with John Wimber, a founder of the Vineyard Movement, to create a new course at Fuller called "Signs, Wonders and Church Growth". Since that point, Wagner has been formally associated with Charismatic teaching and theology.[citation needed]
[edit] Wagner's paradigm

Wagner proposed what is known as Wagner's paradigm,[1] in which the evangelist attempts to persuade a sinner to do something which he has no desire to do. His nature demands that he rebel against the gospel, rather than respond to it. Only by a regenerating act of the Holy Spirit does that sinner have a change of nature which causes him to see his separation from God due to his sin, then to grasp the work of Christ propitiating for him, so that gladly, he repents and believes in Christ. Just as Ezekiel's valley of dry bones, the sinner is dead to the things of God until animated by the life-giving Spirit in the new birth (compare John 3:1-7 with Ezekiel 37 where "the Spirit" and "the breath" convey the same divine Person and work). Thus, man must embrace the bloodlust and brutality of human nature in a state of nature in order to transcend sin.
[edit] Education

* B.S. Rutgers University (summa cum laude), 1952
* M.Div. Fuller Theological Seminary, 1955
* Th.M. Princeton Theological Seminary, 1962
* M.A. Fuller Seminary School of World Mission (Missiology), 1968
* Ph.D. University of Southern California (Social Ethics), 1977

John Alexander Dowie (May 25, 1847–March 9, 1907) was a Scottish evangelist and faith healer in the United States of America. He founded the city of Zion, Illinois, and the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church.


Dowie was born in Edinburgh to John Murray Dowie, a tailor and preacher. He moved to Adelaide, South Australia with his parents in 1860,[1] found work in a prosperous shoe business run by an uncle. After a few months Dowie left the employment of his uncle and had various jobs through which he advanced his position. At length he became confidential clerk for the resident partner of a firm that was doing a business of $2 million a year.[2]

Around 1868, Dowie returned to Edinburgh to study theology. He then returned to Australia and became pastor of a Congregational church at Alma, South Australia. From Alma in South Australia Dowie received and accepted a call to a pastorate at Manly Beach. While young Dowie was at Manly, and just before he left to take the pastorate at Newton, he became exercised in the matter of his choice of a life companion. His love was his first cousin Jeanie.[3]

He went to Sydney and in 1876 became minister of the Newtown Congregational church. He married his cousin, Jane Dowie, on May 26, 1876. They had two children, Gladstone (1877-1945) and Esther (1881-1902). He published Rome's Polluted Springs in 1877, the substance of two lectures given at the Masonic Hall, Sydney. In 1879 he also published at Sydney The Drama, The Press and the Pulpit, revised reports of two lectures given the previous March. About this time he gave up his pastorate as a Congregational clergyman and became an independent evangelist, holding his meetings in a theatre and claiming powers as a faith-healer. Coming to Melbourne in the early 1880s, he attracted many followers and was able to build a tabernacle of his own.[1]

In 1888 he moved to the United States and in 1896 founded the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion, Illinois, with himself as First Apostle. In 1899, he announced plans for the establishment of Zion, Illinois: a city to be free from the evil influences of modern society. In 1903 he held a two-week evangelistic healing campaign at Madison Square Garden in New York City. In 1904 he conducted an "Around the World" campaign, preaching in many countries and cities of the world.
[edit] Theology and influence

Dowie was a believer in divine healing. He printed his followers' healing testimonials in a weekly publication titled "Leaves of Healing." Dowie's teaching that healing is in the atonement of Christ was influential on many[citation needed] Christian ministers during his life and afterward. There was a great resurgence in the interest in divine healing during his lifetime.

While Dowie's ministry predated the revival of Pentecostalism, many of his followers became influential figures in the Azusa Street Revival in the early years of the twentieth century.[citation needed] Though Dowie did not visit South Africa, some of his followers went there as missionaries between 1904 and 1908 and established churches at Wakkerstroom and Charlestown on the Transvaal-Natal border.[4][5] After the missionaries left, these churches proliferated into a huge number of denominations of African Zionism, all claiming their origin in Zion, Illinois, which together constitute the largest group of Christians in South Africa.[4]
[edit] "Prayer Duel" with Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Dowie is of particular significance to the turn-of-the-century Islamic community known as the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Dowie exchanged a series of letters with it's founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, between 1903 and 1907. Herein the Ahmadiyya find a sign of God and a proof of their founder's claim to be the Promised Messiah and Mahdi.[6] Dowie had claimed to be the forerunner of Christ's second coming. He was particularly hard on Muslims, whom he believed Christ would destroy upon his return. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had claimed to be the coming of Christ in the spirit (as well as the promised Imam Mahdi), who would establish the final victory of Islam on earth. Dowie and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad engaged in a widely publicized prayer duel, each calling upon God to expose the other as a false prophet, whoever was found to be false would die before the truthful. Dowie died in 1907,[7] Ahmad died in 1908.[8]
[edit] Final years

Reported by newspapers in America, between the years of 1903 and 1907, Dowie's life deteriorated steadily. Depreciation and dishonour followed. He was accused of alcoholism and his family and friends abandoned him. In 1906 he suffered a debilitating stroke. He died in his city of Zion in 1907.[9]


Maria Woodworth-Etter (1844–1924) was a famous evangelist in the founding years of the Assemblies of God. She was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, born-again in 1857, and married Philo Horace Woodworth in 1863. In 1902, she married Samuel Etter.

When disease took five of her six children, Maria (pronounced Ma-ri-ah) had a vision which led her to dedicate her life to the ministry. After spending over 40 years of her life preaching thousands of sermons across America, Woodworth-Etter built her Tabernacle in Indianapolis, Indiana. Dedicated on May 19th, 1918, her Tabernacle (now Lakeview Church) drew many of future leaders of the revival, including Aimee Semple McPherson. History of the Tabernacle on Lakeview's Church Website, the current name of the church.

Maria Woodworth-Etter died six years after the dedication of her Tabernacle, at the age of 80.
[edit] Sources

* A Diary of Signs and Wonders, Maria Woodworth-Etter, Harrison House, 1916.
* God's Generals, Roberts Liardon, Whitaker House, 1996.
o Documented within Roberts Liardon's book are accounts of the thousands of miracles that took place under the "power of God". Such miracles include the testimony of a man in which "cancer had eaten the entire side of his face and neck". Although the man was in great pain Sister Etter laid hands on him and prayed, the power of God hit him and all of the pain, stiffness and burning left immediately. He was then able to get up turn his neck from side to side and ended up preaching to the crowd (p.64)
o Another testimony is of a man who had three broken ribs. He was barely able to stand because of the pain he endured. As Sister Etter laid hands on him he flinched but after the prayer of faith was given the bones that were turned inward came into place. The same man, instantly healed, ended up pounding his ribs because he realized the pain and the swelling were gone (p.63).
o Many strong men and women of God followed her ministry and were profoundly influenced by her abilities with God. Aimee Semple McPherson and John G. Lake were two healing evangelists that are highly noted and took as much from Maria Woodworth-Etters ministry as possible.


Evan John Roberts (8 June 1878 – 29 September 1951), was a leading figure of the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival who suffered many setbacks in his later life.

His obituary in The Western Mail summed up his career thus:

"He was a man who had experienced strange things. In his youth, he had seemed to hold the nation in the palms of his hands. He endured strains and underwent great changes of opinion and outlook, but his religious convictions remained firm to the end."

Early life

Born in Loughor, Wales, Evan Roberts was the younger of two sons of Henry and Hannah Roberts. Raised in a Calvinistic Methodist home, he was a serious child who attended church regularly and memorized scripture at night. From the age of 11 to 23, he worked in the coal mines alongside his father. Within two weeks the Welsh Revival was national news and before long, Evan Roberts and his brother Dan and his best friend Sidney Evans were travelling the country conducting Revival Meetings.
[edit] Ministry

In 1904, Roberts began studying for the ministry at Newcastle Emlyn. Attendance at a service held by evangelist Seth Joshua in Blaenanerch led to an experience that formed Roberts' belief in the "Baptism of the Spirit". In October of that year, Roberts began speaking at a series of small meetings. These appearances led to his involvement in the Revival. He was soon attracting congregations numbering thousands.

The four "points" of his message were:

1. Confess all known sin
2. Deal with and get rid of anything ‘doubtful’ in your life
3. Be ready to obey the Holy Spirit instantly
4. Confess Christ publicly

[edit] Collapse

Roberts soon succumbed to the pressure of his rigorous schedule, and, in 1906, suffered a physical and emotional collapse.
[edit] Later life

Evan Roberts died in 1951 at the age of seventy-three. He was buried in a family plot behind Moriah Chapel in south Wales. Today, a memorial column commemorates his contribution to the revival.


Charles Fox Parham (4 June 1873 - c. 29 January 1929[2]) was an American preacher who was instrumental in the formation of Pentecostalism.[3] Also an Apostolic Faith movement of independent churches (initially called "missions") grew across the southern and western US from meetings Parham held there. While press reports were initially favorable in some of the areas Parham ministered, some of the large main line churches, and church hierarchy in Zion City, were not pleased with his ministry and did what they could to discourage furtherance of his teachings. As a result some of the press reports became more negative as his ministry approached its peak in 1906 and 1907.

Parham was a controversial figure throughout his ministry. As one paper commented in 1916, "He is one of the most loved, and at the same time one of the most hated, men in the United States".[1] Parham's detractors were still active enough at the time of Parham's death in 1929 that, according to one source, his eventual grave marker was postponed and an initial unlabelled marker was used to avoid having the grave harmed.[2]

Hostility toward Parham was evidenced by the printing of damaging reports, based in part on rumors, by a couple of religious papers.(p223-225)[3] Those papers appear to have enhanced an unbiased report, printed in the July 19, 1907, issue of the "San Antonio Light", San Antonio Texas, which said that Parham was detained on morals charges.[3][4] The hostile religious papers never mentioned that the subject was immediately dropped in the original local papers. The charges never reached the stage of indictment because there was "absolutely no evidence which merited legal recognition". Even the city attorney "was satisfied it was all spite work".[3][5] Despite the total lack of evidence, and even the unclear status regarding what was alleged, some religious leaders of the time (who disagreed with Parham's beliefs) kept the unproven allegations before the people. In the moral climate of the time, even unproven allegations were enough to lessen a minister's influence and keep people from his ministry.[6] Rather than battle in this environment, Parham withdrew from Texas to his prior home area of Baxter Springs, Kansas. From there he ministered to a congregation he had previously started, and continued to publish his newsletter and minister across the country until his death over 20 years later. While Parham had a strong following among those who accepted his ministry and teachings, he was never able to get away from the old allegations and bitterness from those opposed.[5]

There were also allegations of racism against Parham. Although Parham received criticism from Southerners at the time for going against culture in not conforming with segregation, because of a few comments and his endorsement of some aspects of British Israelitism, many have tried to brand Parham as a racist.


Life and career

Born in Muscatine, Iowa, on 4 June 1873, Parham began coordinating independent services at the age of 15, and in his early adult life had already made a name for himself. He was affiliated with the Methodist and Holiness movements. Parham disagreed with the hierarchy of the Methodist church, and later, would also alienate many of his followers by declaring their worship style invalid (based on what he felt was excess emotionalism and a lack of spiritual leadership).[5] In 1895, he broke with the mainstream Methodist denomination and established his own ministry, staying free formal structure and organization (outside the local church) for the remainder of his ministry.

He married the daughter of a Quaker, Sarah Thistlewaite. Their engagement was in summer of 1896,[3] and the details and date of their marriage are given by Parham's wife in Chapter V of her 1930 biography on Parham. It says they "were married, December 31, 1896; the Friend's Ministers, Jonathan Ballard and his wife had charge of the service at my grandfather's home."[5] This would have made Parham 23 years old when they married. The other date, given at the end of the same book, quotes an article on Parham from Volume 3 of "History of Kansas and its People", published in 1928. That article says that Parham's marriage was solemnized December 31, 1895,[5] appears to have been a typographical error, since his wife should have known when they were married. Other earlier dates given later by others provided earlier date which would not fit with details related by Mrs. Parham in the 1930 biography or with the timing of their engagement.
[edit] Ministry

Parham was an active evangelist and Bible teacher. He began preaching when he was 15 years old, had a short period of disillusionment while in college,[3] then re-committed his life to preaching the gospel on the condition that he "would not have to take collections or beg for a living"(p7).[5] From that point Parham stepped out into a ministry by faith, operating on that basis for the rest of his life. He was already an active evangelist by the time he met his future wife at the age of 19. Starting in 1893, at the age of 20, he pastored a couple churches (a Methodist one at Eudora Kansas, and one he had started earlier that year at nearby Linwood, Kansas) as a "supply pastor". In 1895, while attending an ordination service for ministers, Parham realized that Methodist preachers "were not left to preach by direct inspiration" and immediately surrendered his preachers license and severed all connections with the denomination.[3] After that the primary focus of his life's ministry was as an evangelist.

In 1898, Parham moved his ministry to Topeka, Kansas, starting a healing home there. The 1930 biography on Parham acknowledges that Parham "deciding to know more fully the latest truths restored by the later day movements", took a sabbatical from his work at the healing home in 1900 and "visited various movements, such as Dowie's ... the Eye-Opener work ... Malone's work ... Dr. Simpson's ... Sanford's ... and many others."(page 48)[5] While he saw and looked at other teachings and models when he visited the other works, most of his time was spent at Sanford's work and in an Ontario, Canada, religious campaign of Sanford's.[3] From Parham's later writings, it appears he incorporated some, but not all, of the ideas he observed into his view of Bible truths (which he later taught at his Bible schools).[7] In addition to having an impact on what he taught, it appears he picked up his Bible school model, and other approaches, from Sanford's work.[3] When he returned from this sabbatical, those left in charge of his healing home had taken over and, rather than fighting for control, Parham started Bethel Bible College in Topeka, operating the school on a faith basis, not charging tuition, depending on God to supply the needs of the school.

Prior to starting his Bible school, Parham had heard of at least one individual in Sanford's work who spoke in tongues and had reprinted the incident in his paper. He had also come to the conclusion that there was more to a full baptism than others acknowledged at the time.[3] By the end of 1900, Parham had led his students at Bethel Bible School through his understanding that there had to be a further experience with God, but had not specifically pointed them to speaking in tongues. While Parham's account indicates that when classes were finished at the end of December, he left his students for a few days, asking them to study the Bible to determine what evidence was present when the early church received the Holy Ghost,[5] this is not clear from the other accounts.[3][7] The students had several days of prayer and worship, and held a New Year's Eve "watch-night" service at Bethel (December 31, 1900). The next evening (January 1, 1901) they also held a worship service, and it was that evening that Agnes Ozman felt impressed to ask to be prayed for to receive the fullness of the holy spirit and asked to be prayed for to receive this.[3] Immediately after being prayed for, she began to speak in what they referred to as "in tongues", speaking in what was believed to be a known language.[7]

Some alleged that Ozman was the first person to do so since the event of Pentecost in the New Testament book of the Acts of the Apostles, however there are hundreds of other recorded instances including St. Francis of Assisi, Martin Luther, Saint Augustine, and others starting around 1800. Parham, in his paper, even acknowledged one of these, and in his first book acknowledged others.[3] From the writings of those directly involved in the event, it appears that they (the students) had not been told what to believe about this, but had been led to a belief that there was more to an experience with God than they previously had, and had begun to seek for that further experience. Although Parham may have reached his conclusion earlier,[3] it does not appear he had yet told the students of this, and the students did not themselves come to that opinion until after Ozman's initial experience with tongues.[7] Historians indicate that the difference between the tongues that came initially under Parham's ministry, and what had happened previously, was that the speaking in tongues this time came as a direct result seeking the Holy Ghost and an associated study of the Bible. There is some disagreement whether the students understood that what they were looking for was the evidence of receiving the Holy Ghost, but it appears Parham had believed this before then, had led the students in this direction in their studies. Within days after the event the students believed this was that tongues was the evidence confirming it was received.[3] Previously the experience had been more random and was felt to be more in the nature of ecstatic utterances. The low profile of the other instances, plus the press coverage and the controversy in the papers, apparently caused people to think it was the first time since the day of Pentecost.

While it appears that speaking in tongues was not first received through Parham's ministry, the focus on what it meant (as the "evidence") appears to have started there, and shortly afterwards it gained momentum. Most in the Pentecostal movement would point to him as being a key person in the early days of the movement. Prior to 1906 (i.e. in 1903 - 1905), Parham held services in Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, where "baptism of the holy spirit with speaking in tongues" was often present. William Seymour, the initial preacher at Azusa street, attended Parham's bible college in the winter of 1905, and went out from there to Los Angeles, bringing many of Parham's teachings with him.

When Seymour was in Los Angeles and the Azusa Street revival was beginning, a request came for Parham to go to Zion City (a community then in religious turmoil resulting from financial problems the community was going through) to hold some meetings. Parham responded, held meetings there, and as a result many in Zion City, including FF Bosworth, John G. Lake, and other ministers who later became well known in Pentecostal circles, had Pentecostal experiences. Zion City had been founded by Alexander Dowie as a community where Christian morals would guide community life, and prior to Parham arriving, had been a one church community (Dowie's church). The people there were already committed to Christian values, already believed in divine healing, and already had a zeal for the Gospel. Parham's intrusion into the community was strongly resisted by the head of Dowie's church, Overseer Voliva, who initially even prevented them from using any of the public buildings for holding services. Despite this church hierarchy resistance, his coming was well received by many of the community leaders (some had formerly been officials in Dowie's church) who were ready for further growth in the Gospel. The initial Word people heard rang true, people opened up their homes, and religious services proceeded despite everything the local church hierarchy tried to prevent the services. Those who attended Parham's services and saw the further gospel light there were rejected from Dowie's church. From Zion City, possibly to as great an extent as from Los Angeles, Pentecost spread around the world.

After 1906 in Zion City, Parham's ministry continued until his death over 20 years later, but it was not long before he began to decline as a further major national influence. This decline was caused by a number of factors. Resistance to his ministry, hatred, bitterness, strife, and persecution arose, and scandal was alleged by those opposed to his ministry. Many did not appreciate or accept his teachings and lack of organizational structure, and others did not appreciate his stand for "discerning the spirits" (similar to Dr. Simpson's teaching) and against excess emotionalism, "fanaticism and wild-fire". Parham's wife said that he did not let bitterness come in, did not retaliate, and preached non-resistance, quoting Parham in saying that these were the ways of those who refused to accept the truth that was presented. The start of the decline was when the head of Dowie's church in Zion was against what he saw as intrusion into their religious community and did what he could to resist Parham's influence. Next, Parham visited Seymour on Azusa street, tried to provide correction regarding the emotionalism and other things he saw, and was asked not to return. Then there were those who tried to have Parham start a formal organization (and place them within it) who turned from Parham when he refused. On top of this, the allegations of racism, scandal, and doctrinal differences all appear to be related responses and added to Parham's loss of influence.

As Goff noted in his biography on Parham, there appeared to be a "noticeable decline" in Parham's travels for 1909, followed by a "dramatic resurgence in activity from 1910 on".(p230)[3] Parham's ministry appears to have been strong and well received in many areas, especially among the believers he had originally introduced the gospel to in both Kansas and Texas, and among those who came in under his later ministry (despite the resistance and slurs). Over the years that followed, Parham also held meetings in California, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Missouri, Alabama, Oregon, Idaho, New Jersey, New York, Michigan and even Canada, and he still had "thousands of friends around the country". Among those who accepted and followed his teachings he remained a loved and highly respected minister. Even though Parham's revivals were non-denominational, many who saw the Word the way Parham preached it wanted to associate together, and hundreds of independent churches (or "missions" as Parham called them) formed as a result of his revivals across the United States and Canada. Some would travel for hundreds of miles to hear Parham preach even later in his ministry. There was a time when up to 7,000 people attend individual Parham services, and his camp meetings regularly had over a thousand people in attendance, with numbers higher on the weekends. In the 1930 biography on Parham, his wife quotes Volume 3 of "History of Kansas and its People", published in 1928 which records that "a New York statistician has given Mr. Parham credit for the conversion of fully 2,000,000 persons, though his personal appeals and through the medium of ministers who have loyally followed his teachings and examples."(p450).[5] His friends and supporters remained strongly for him, while his detractors became more bitter and kept up the persecution.[5]
[edit] Death

As a boy, Parham had contracted a severe rheumatic fever which damaged his heart and contributed to his poor health. At one time he almost died. Parham recovered to an active preaching life, strongly believing that God was his healer. While he recovered from the rheumatic fever, it appears the disease probably weakened his heart muscles and was a contributing factor to his later heart problems and early death.[3] By 1927 early symptoms of heart problems were beginning to appear, and by the fall and summer of 1928, after returning from a trip to Palestine (which had been a lifetime desire), Parham's health began to further deteriorate. Those who knew him said that they saw him stopping at times to catch his breath when walking even short distances. Still a desire to minister drove him forward. In early January 1929 Parham took a long car ride with two friends to Temple, Texas, where he was to be presenting his pictures of Palestine. Word came the following Monday that he was very sick, and when his wife arrived she found out that his heart was bad and he was unable to eat. He collapsed the prior Saturday (January 5, 1929) while showing his slides. Over his resistance (he wanted to keep on with his preaching tour) his family brought him home, and on the afternoon of 29 January 1929 Charles Fox Parham died in the confines of his home in Baxter Springs, Kansas.[8] (p 413)[5]
[edit] Controversy
[edit] Allegations of Racism
This article's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (August 2008)

Some allege that Parham was a "racist" or a "separationist." Parham's writings and biography confirm that he did not feel it was appropriate to have intermingling of blacks and whites in the services and did not believe in inter-racial marriages.

It is ironic that Parham has been labeled a rascist due to the fact that, in his day, he faced criticism for his open attitude toward the races. Parham allowed a black preacher to speak to a group of white people in Texas. He also spoke in predominantly African American churches and was well respected by the African American community in Topeka, Kansas.

Parham's actions stepped beyond what a racist of the period would have done. He allowed William J. Seymour, a Black minister, to attend his bible school in Texas in 1905 (something many from the south of his era would have been reluctant to do). One account, repeated in many books, is that Seymour had to sit in an adjacent classroom or in the hall (due to Texas race laws), but special allowance was made for him to attend. But Pauline Parham, his daughter-in-law recounts:

One of those who applied for enrollment was William J. Seymour, who had been encouraged to do so by Lucy Farrow. His entry into the Bible school must have caused some consternation because of the Jim Crow and segregation laws that time in Texas. Dad Parham, being from Kansas, was not used to such laws and customs and he welcomed Seymour into the classroom. There is an undocumented account, repeated in many books, that Seymour was required to sit in an adjoining room and listen to the lectures through an open door. The account I heard from those present was that he was welcomed into the class along with everyone else.[9]

Seymour became influential in the movement and (although he was Black) was a colleague of Parham's who took the doctrine of tongues to Los Angeles, where the crucial Azusa Street Revival would take place in 1906. Then, in late 1906, Parham made a special trip to visit Seymour in Los Angeles, at Seymour's request, to try to help control the emotionalism and other problems which were occurring. And the biography on Parham documents that Blacks were welcome at a number of Parham's later meetings, even in Kansas, though it appears segregation probably applied within those meetings.

While Parham was in Los Angeles in late 1906, terminology from Parham's upbringing appears to have surfaced and he denounced parts of the revival as being like a "darky camp meeting." This comment was made in response to the emotionalism he observed. While Parham believed in "manifestations of the Spirit", he was against the excesses and what he called the "manifestations of the flesh" that he observed in Los Angeles, which Parham said made "God is sick at His stomach!" While his comments would not be politically correct in today's racially sensitive environment, it appears his comments were aimed at the actions he observed (which Seymour had recognized were a problem and had asked him to come and help deal with) rather than the people, specific races, or strong racist beliefs.[10]

For whatever the reason (i.e. whether racial or otherwise), local elders at Azusa street did not agree with or accept Parham's attempt at correction of these manifestations and asked him to leave after only a few services. After this separation it appears Seymour began to distance himself from Parham, going so far as to eventually claim that "the Azusa St. Mission was where the Baptism of the Holy Spirit first fell" (1930 Parham biography, p164).

Some articles allege that Parham was a Klansman, and claim there are written records confirming that Parham became a full member of the Ku Klux Klan during 1910.[11] Yet the source and validity of the documents themselves is not provided, and this is hotly debated by supporters of Parham. Parham's supporters contend the KKK didn't even exist at this time. An undated (probably 1925)[5] poster for a Parham camp meeting is provided by one web site to support the allegation that Parham was involved with the Klan,[12] yet what it says at the bottom "K-onvincing K-onvicting K-onverting" is open for interpretation in various ways (i.e. location was K-ingman K-ansas). The rumor that Parham was involved in the Klan may have developed from the name of his revival meeting.

It is important to note that the KKK in Parham's time was not primarily seen as an anti-black organization. Rather, it emphasized family values and was concerned with limiting Irish immigration and the spread of Roman Catholicism. It had great political power in some parts of the country. Even Harry Truman, who later integrated the military, joined the Klan in 1922.

A 2004 edition of the Journal Pneuma declares:

With the Klan having gained such prominence in the 1920s, it is not surprising that Parham would comment on them and their activities. Parham never belonged to the Klan (as some have asserted) and his commendation of them is likely related to their championing of patriotism, marriage and family, not to their masked racial agenda. Parham went on to declare that even the supposedly positive efforts of the Klan were doomed to failure because they lacked a purely spiritual agenda.[13]

The report of the meetings in Apostolic Faith, quoted in Parham's biography, simply mentions events common to gospel meetings.[5] The only mention of the KKK in the 1930 biography about Parham was a comment that "we also held services in the K.K.K. Hall in Saginaw, Mich, before leaving the east". That refers to a February 1927 meeting, complete context refers to gospel meetings Parham was holding, there is no indication of KKK related beliefs anywhere in the book, and it could simply have been an available hall for the meetings.[5]

By 1910 Parham had already been isolated by most of Pentecostalism, so unproven allegations from the era are suspect, and could be a result of misunderstanding what was observed. Many were against Parham's ministry, alleging anything which might decrease the impact of his ministry. Parham did operate out of Baxter Springs, an area that then practiced segregation, and even now it still has a low non-white population, yet he allowed blacks to attend his services, even ones held in near his home. Given Parham's active full time ministry, and the frequency and intensity of his meetings, it appears he would have had little time for involvement in any organization, and his available writings do not appear to have been influenced by KKK values, although it appears that by the end of his life at least part of his views would have been ones acceptable to the KKK. His writings do reflect an early and continuing belief in British Israel theology, something which has been used by some to support KKK type beliefs. The points used by some to support an alleged KKK membership could also have other explanations, and even timing for when the KKK restarted does not line up with when some allege Parham joined. While Parham was probably not a member of the KKK, by the 1920s one Parham biographer indicates that Parham had become concerned after WWI about the anarchy and radical ideology that seemed to pervade American society. As a result, Parham felt no qualms about offering high praise for the reorganized KKK, and in 1927 Parham issued a call for all members of the "invisible empire" to coordinate their "high ideals" with a genuine restoration of "old time religion".(p157)[3] It appears that Parham viewed at least part of the KKK values as ones that lined up with his views of morality and his view of the Bible.
[edit] Freemasonry

Parham was probably a member of the Freemasons at some time in his life.[14] The 1930 biography on Parham (page 32) says "Mr. Parham belonged to a lodge and carried an insurance on his life. He felt now that he should give this up also."[5] The question is one of timing, the extent of his involvement, and how much of their teachings became merged with his theology. From his wife's comments, it appears he was originally involved because of the good deeds they did in looking after their fellow man (something he did not feel the churches did a good job of doing), not because of their beliefs. Because many in the Pentecostal movement oppose the Freemasons so bitterly, some have said that he left the organization when he started his "Full Gospel" ministry. This would fit with the comment in the biography. What is clear is that, at the peak of his ministry (between 1900 and mid-1907) he had little time for involvement in any organizations. His bible school and his preaching were an all consuming task. Even his active later ministry left little free time for activities like lodges. Some feel there is evidence that Parham was still a member of the Freemasons in 1928 (they feel he "appeared to still have Masonic tendencies"), but source documents for this are not quoted. They may be drawing an inference from a letter that Parham wrote back home from his Palestine trip where he said "I am going to bring a gavel home with me ... I am going to present it to the Masonic lodge in Baxter Springs with my respects."(p373)[5] Yet if he had been a member then, it is likely that his wife's earlier comment in the same book, where it tells of Parham's decision to leave the lodge, would have been different. She said "I had been taught in the Friend's church not to believe in secret organizations, and was very glad for his decision" [i.e. to leave the lodge].(p32)[5] It is just as likely that the gavel was simply a present for friends he had known since his original involvement. If Parham was involved in Freemasonry, the ultimate question is what the level of his involvement was, when he was involved, and if there are any indications of these beliefs in his ministry, especially during the period of his highest influence in the early Pentecostal movement (from 1900 to 1907). Lower level involvement in smaller communities can be more of a social involvement than a belief in or an understanding of their principles (as it appears was the situation with Parham's early involvement with the lodge).[citation needed]
[edit] Morals Questioned

By late 1906 Parham was getting a lot of resistance from churches who were against the beliefs he was presenting. Different things were tried to lessen his influence. In July 1907, local San Antonio, Texas, newspapers reported that Parham was detained on "morals charges".[15] Another article (apparently quoting a suspect anti-Parham religious paper) claims that Parham was "charged with sodomy of young males". Another writer infers that it was masturbation, indicating that it was "based on the statement of one individual, charging that he observed [Parham] while peeking through the keyhole ... misconducting himself when alone in his room."(p223)[3] Because of this, even the nature of the original allegation is therefore not clear, and may have been suspect even at the time. On top of this, the articles say that Parham "vigorously denied the charges".[16] While some ministers of the era (ones who were adverse to Parham's teachings) alleged that the charges did not go forward because nobody was willing to testify, the charges were ones which, under Texas law, were a felony. Given the moral climate at the time (very negative toward any allegation of sexual misconduct) they would have been actively pursued if there was any evidence.[3] There are no court records of the event in Texas because, as Parham's wife pointed out, the allegations never even made it to the stage of an Indictment (meaning there was absolutely no credible evidence to even lay charges), let alone enough evidence to go to trial. There was simply no evidence against Parham and it appears he was believed in his denial.[3][5]

Given the resistance to Parham's ministry, his followers believed that the allegations were a tool used by some of the churches, possibly Dowie's church at Zion. Historians point out that Overseer Voliva, the man who was then in charge of Dowie's church in Zion (which was strongly opposed to the Pentecostal movement as brought by Parham), would not let the unproven allegations disappear into the past, regularly bringing them up. Viola also appears to have been responsible for having the local papers in Zion City (which were under his control) publish character slurs against Parham associates there, alleging misconduct on their part. And in Texas Parham had been instrumental in a church that had been under Dowie's (and later Viola's) control breaking their association with Zion City.[3][4] Even the more extreme (and unsupported) morality allegations against Parham have been traced to the Zion City newspaper (which was under Viola's control).[3] And there was resistance to his ministry from other areas also, both because he was against formalism and because he was against extremes of emotionalism. Parham's wife, in her 1930 biography on Parham (page 198),[5] said that the city attorney told Parham that he would not "even call the case to trial for he 'was satisfied it was all spite work'". She also says that she was with her husband "at the date set in the indictment, but the case was never called, the prosecuting attorney declaring that there was absolutely no evidence which merited any legal recognition".

What is clear is that the situation never made it any further, and under the law there should be a presumption of innocence until proven guilty. As well, even under Biblical principles an accusation against an elder should not have been received or accepted without proper witnesses. Even though there are no other recorded incidents of Parham's morality being questioned again, the taint of the initial allegations, regularly brought up by his detractors, scarred Parham's reputation for the rest of his life. As a result his religious influence was lowered in many areas. As one historian pointed out, after the 1907 accusation "many early Pentecostals considered him to be an embarrassment to the movement."(p112).[7] Even some participants in original outpouring distanced themselves from Parham, and one didn't even mention his name in her testimonies of the event.[7]

After these allegations, Parham no longer had the same major active influence in the development of the Pentecostal movement he previously had. He withdrew his base of operation to his prior home area at Baxter Springs, Kansas, and from then on operated from the church he had previously started there. The 1930 biography on Parham shows that, even after the 1907 allegations, Parham's national evangelistic ministry continued to grow from the original core of believers who came in previously (and stayed with him), as well as those who later came in under his later ministry. The difference was that in later years the unproven charges and other allegations were regularly raised by his detractors, decreasing his influence with many who fell prey to the comments.
[edit] Doctrinal Differences

In addition to the scar created by the unproven morals charges, the historians who have studied Parham's life also point to doctrinal differences as a factor which caused some in the holiness and Pentecostal movements to distance themselves from Parham.

The most controversial of Parham's beliefs at the time was his belief that hell was not eternal - that it would eventually end. According to the 1930 biography on Parham's life, Parham came to this conclusion when studying the Bible with his future wife's grandfather. The historians indicate this belief was not well received by many of the theologians who heard it.

Another controversial belief of Parham's, which does not seem to have been as controversial in the early 1900s, was Parham's acceptance of at least some elements of British (or Anglo) Israel theology. Parham appears to have first heard of and believed this doctrine early in his ministry, when he was still pastoring a Methodist church, hearing of it from Bishop A. H. Allen, who was a life long friend of Parham's after that.(p421)[5] Around 1900 British Israelism appears to have had a number of followers, including Alexander Dowie and Frank Sanford (both ministers Parham had studied in his 1900 Sabbatical). Parham's 1902 book "A Voice Crying in the Wilderness" reprinted in 1910, and then printed again after the 1930 biography about Parham, has several chapters on this, clearly confirming his acceptance of many portions of the doctrine. Chapter titles include "The Tribe of Judah - Queen Victoria's Pedigree from Adam Down Without Missing a Generation" (claiming to trace her linage through King David), and "Ten Lost Tribes Discovered". The 1930 biography written by Parham's wife also mentions Parham preaching on this subject in 1916 and in the 1920s.[5] Parham's acceptance and preaching of these points may form part of the belief among some that Parham was a racist and connected with the KKK. Portions of British Israel theology, taken out of their full context, could be used to support some typical KKK racial beliefs, creating the possibility of KKK members supporting his ministry.

Along with Parham's belief in British Israelism, Parham also preached a great deal on prophecy and believed that the end of the world, and the coming of Christ, were very close. This was part of his belief structure even when he was pastoring a Methodist church in the mid-1890s. A letter from a minister friend of his (recorded in the 1930 biography) mentioned the first time he met Parham. He asked Parham "do you know that these are the last days, and that Jesus is coming soon?" Parham's reply was "Every sanctified man knows that". (page 422)[5] According to the testimonies in the biography, Parham had the ability to set this forth very clearly and convincingly, and this ability may have been part of the reason for the success of his ministry. His convincing Biblical arguments that the end of the world as we know it was near did not sit well with those church leaders who did agree with his beliefs.

Parham was also against man made hierarchy and leadership, feeling that God would lead his church through independent local assemblies. He also lived by the principle that if God was in a ministry, He would support it, and that a minister should not have to beg for money or manipulate things to be supported. Both of these beliefs were contrary to how traditional churches believed and operated. When in 1907 some in Zion attempted to have Parham set up a structure and hierarchy (similar to most organizations), Parham resigned his position as "Projector of the Apostolic Faith Movement". He claimed that he "simply followed a well considered plan ... made years ago, never to receive honor of men or to establish a new Church."[5] From that point on, he operated solely as an independent evangelist. This step, and the belief behind it, left Parham outside the eventual structures established by others, and outside the political support that those structures offered their ministry.
[edit] Legacy

The Charles F. Parham Center for Pentecostal-Charismatic Studies is an "independent research facility" on the campus of South Texas Bible Institute in Houston, Texas. It is one of several organizations to consider Parham a founding leader of the Pentecostal movement.[17]

Parham's main doctrinal contribution was his interpretation of the baptism in the Holy Ghost and his requiring as evidence the speaking in tongues.
[edit] Notes

^ While some feel Parham's exact death date is obscure, details and timing shown in the biography "The Life of Charles F Parham" (p413), written by his wife, confirm 29 January 1929 as the date of his death. In addition to providing his exact date of death, the biography provides dates for a number of events prior to and following his death which confirm the date. Other more current articles and biographies also point to this date.[8] The obscurity concerning the date of Parham's death may relate to the low profile of his passing away - to prevent an adverse reaction by those who were against Parham, he was buried in a simple grave, the location was not advertised, and it was not until later that a larger, more public, marker was placed over his grave.

^ Most sources maintain Parham and William J. Seymour founded modern Pentecostalism, although Pentecostal doctrine had dwelt for years among many different congregations.


Robert Toru Kiyosaki (born April 8, 1947) is an American investor, businessman, self-help author and motivational speaker. Kiyosaki is best known for his Rich Dad Poor Dad series of motivational books and other material published under the Rich Dad brand. He has written 15 books which have combined sales of over 26 million copies.[1] Although beginning as a self-publisher, he was subsequently published by Warner Books, a division of Hachette Book Group USA, currently his new books appear under the Rich Dad Press imprint. Three of his books, Rich Dad Poor Dad, Rich Dad's CASHFLOW Quadrant, and Rich Dad's Guide to Investing, have been on the top 10 best-seller lists simultaneously on The Wall Street Journal, USA Today and the New York Times. Rich Kid Smart Kid was published in 2001, with the intent to help parents teach their children financial concepts. He has created three "Cashflow" board and software games for adults and children and has a series of "Rich Dad" audio cassettes and disks. He also publishes a monthly newsletter.[citation needed]

Personal life

A fourth-generation Japanese American, Kiyosaki was born and raised in Hawaii. He is the son of the late educator Ralph H. Kiyosaki (1919–1991). After graduating from Hilo High School, he attended the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy in New York, graduating with the class of 1969 as a deck officer. He later served in the Marine Corps as a helicopter gunship pilot during the Vietnam War, where he was awarded the Air Medal.

Kiyosaki left the Marine Corps in 1975 and got a job selling copy machines for the Xerox Corporation. In 1977, Kiyosaki started a company that brought to market the first nylon and Velcro "surfer" wallets. The company was moderately successful at first but eventually went bankrupt. In the early 1980s, Kiyosaki started a business that licensed T-shirts for Heavy metal rock bands. In 1997 he launched Cashflow Technologies, Inc.[2] which owns and operates the Rich Dad[3] and Cashflow[4] brands.
[edit] Family

He is married to Kim Kiyosaki. He has one sister, Emi Kiyosaki, a Tibetan Buddhist nun and known by the name Ven. Tenzin Kacho. He has co-authored one book with her.[5]
[edit] Teachings

A large part of Kiyosaki's teachings focus on generating passive income by means of investment opportunities, such as real estate and businesses, with the ultimate goal of being able to support oneself by such investments alone. In tandem with this, Kiyosaki defines "assets" as things that generate cash inflow, such as rental properties or businesses—and "liabilities" as things that use cash, such as houses, cars, and so on. Kiyosaki also argues that financial leverage is critically important in becoming rich.

Kiyosaki stresses financial literacy as the means to obtaining wealth. He says that life skills are often best learned through experience and that there are important lessons not taught in school. He says that formal education is primarily for those seeking to be employees or self-employed individuals, and that this is an "Industrial Age idea." And according to Kiyosaki, in order to obtain financial freedom, one must be either a business owner or an investor, generating passive income.

Kiyosaki often refers to "The Cashflow Quadrant," a conceptual tool which he developed to categorized the four major ways income is earned. Depicted in a diagram, this concept entails four groupings, split with two lines (one vertical and one horizontal). In each of the four groups there is a letter representing a way in which an individual may earn income. The letters are as follows.

* E: Employee — Working for someone else.
* S: Self-employed or Small business owner — Where a person owns his own job and is his own boss.
* B: Business owner — Where a person owns a business to make money.
* I: Investor — Investing money in order to receive a larger payout in the future.

[edit] Rich Dad brand
Main article: Rich Dad
[edit] Books

Kiyosaki is best known for his book Rich Dad, Poor Dad, the #1 New York Times bestseller. Kiyosaki followed with Rich Dad's CASHFLOW Quadrant and Rich Dad's Guide to Investing. He has now had at least a dozen books published. The best known of these include:

* Cashflow Quadrant: Rich Dad's Guide to Financial Freedom (2000)
* Rich Dad's Guide to Investing: What the Rich Invest in, That the Poor and the Middle Class Do Not! (2000)
* Rich Kid, Smart Kid (2001)
* Rich Dad's Prophecy (2002)
* Why We Want You To Be Rich (2007, with Donald Trump)
* The Business School

[edit] Games

Kiyosaki stresses the value of games, particularly Monopoly, as tools for learning basic financial strategies such as "trade four green houses for one red hotel." Kiyosaki has created several games to reinforce the information in his books.

* Cashflow 101
* Cashflow 202
* Cashflow for Kids
* Cashflow The E-Game
* Cashflow 202 The E-Game

[edit] Appearances
[edit] PBS

Several local stations of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), including WTTW of Chicago, KAET of Phoenix, KOCE of Orange County, California, WLIW of the New York/New Jersey area, and WGBH of Boston, have featured Kiyosaki during fund-raising drives. During this television special, Rich Dad's Guide to Wealth with Robert Kiyosaki, he provides viewers with financial education, as opposed to academic or professional education.
[edit] News

Kiyosaki has been seen giving financial advice on various network television news channels.
[edit] New York City's Madison Square Garden (October, 2002)

This speech was the subject of a CNN story.[6]
[edit] CBC Marketplace

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation consumer affairs program Marketplace aired a documentary piece on Kiyosaki on Jan 29, 2010. It includes interviews with Kiyosaki.[7]
[edit] Financial advice
[edit] Mutual funds

Kiyosaki wrote in one column that investors in any mutual fund with a 2.5% annual fee would, over a long time period, surrender 80% of the earnings to the fund.[8] Kiyosaki expanded on his criticism of mutual funds in another column by stating they are for "losers."[9] He has drawn much criticism for comparing investing in mutual funds to playing the lottery, and for discouraging 401(k) investing, contrary to the advice of most professional financial advisers.[10] In contrast to these statements, Kiyosaki wrote in his book Prophecy that while mutual funds are not great investments, they remain one of the few acceptable investment vehicles available to those who will not educate themselves financially.

Kiyosaki's criticisms are supported by the founder of the mutual fund Vanguard, John C. Bogle. In a Frontline episode titled "401(k)s: The New Retirement Plan, For Better or Worse", Bogle stated that management fees and trading costs gobble up approximately 2.5% of an investor's annual returns and approximately 80% of an investor's long term gains. He says management costs reduce the value of a $1,000 investment over 65 years from approximately $140,000 at 8% compounded annually to a mere $30,000 at 5.5% compounded annually. Bogle's solution is to utilize index funds, which charge as little as 0.09%, to substantially reduce or eliminate management fees.[11]
[edit] Criticism and controversy

Kiyosaki's books and teachings have been criticized for focusing on anecdotes and containing little in the way of concrete advice on how readers should proceed.[12] Kiyosaki responds that his material is meant to be more of a motivational tool to get readers thinking about money, rather than a step by step guide to wealth. He also says the books are supposed to be "interesting" to people, which precludes involving a lot of technical material.[13]

ABC ran a 20/20 segment on May 19, 2006 in which Kiyosaki was to advise three entrepreneurs on how to make money. They were given $1000 and 20 days to try and make the most money possible. One earned a return of 24%, the second earned a return of 54% and gave it all to charity, and the third lost 100% because she invested in machines that could not be delivered in 20 days. The contestants alleged that Kiyosaki never gave concrete advice. "All he [Kiyosaki] does is, I guess, is open your mind to the possibility. He doesn't tell you how to do it." Kiyosaki responded that failure is important to learning. At the end, 20/20 asks, "Does anyone really need 18 books to learn to fail?"[1]

The Wall Street Journal criticized Why We Want You To Be Rich by Kiyosaki and Trump[14] as did Kiplinger's Personal Finance.[15]

Rich Dad is a brand established by Robert Kiyosaki for a series of educational books and games about personal finance. The trademark is owned Cashflow Technologies, a corporation established in 1997 by Robert and Kim Kiyosaki to market these books and games.

Books and other media

The first and best known of these books, Rich Dad Poor Dad, was a #1 New York Times bestseller. It was written by Robert Kiyosaki with Sharon Lechter and advocates financial independence through investing, real estate, owning businesses, and the use of finance protection tactics.

Kiyosaki followed with Rich Dad's CASHFLOW Quadrant and Rich Dad's Guide to Investing. He has now had at least a dozen books published. A partial list of his books is included below.

Originally self-published before being picked up commercially to become a best seller, the central concept of Rich Dad Poor Dad is an anecdotal comparison of his "two fathers". His "poor dad" was his biological father, who became Superintendent of the Hawaii State Department of Education but had very little real net worth. Contrasted with this is his (arguably fictitious, see "Criticism and controversy" section of this article) "rich dad" advocates tax-advantaged investment vehicles, such as real estate or businesses, rather than ownership of securities.[citation needed] This idea is further developed in his later books. Rich Dad became Kiyosaki's personal brand for various publishing ventures.

Cashflow Quadrant: Rich Dad's Guide to Financial Freedom (2000)
Cashflow Quadrant is a personal finance and investing book written with Sharon Lechter, C.P.A. as the sequel to Rich Dad, Poor Dad. In it, Kiyosaki discusses what he calls the cashflow quadrant: a grid consisting of the letters "E", "S", "B", and "I." The cashflow quadrant itself is just an illustrative tool to show the difference between Employees, Self Employed/Small Business owners, Business owners (not directly involved in the day-to-day operation of the company), and Investors. Kiyosaki discusses the differences between concepts and ideas characteristic of each quadrant, particularly as they relate to passive income and tax advantages.

Rich Dad's Guide to Investing: What the Rich Invest in, That the Poor and the Middle Class Do Not! (2000)
Rich Dad's Guide to Investing gives the reader a roadmap to becoming the Ultimate Investor, one who uses other peoples' money to create investments that people want to buy into. While the first two books use broad strokes, this one goes into much more detail about actually implementing some of the strategies heretofore discussed.

Rich Kid, Smart Kid (2001)
Rich Kid, Smart Kid is a retelling of Kiyosaki's views, condensed and clarified to try and help parents better understand and teach their children key financial concepts. It includes a series of activities that a parent can do with their child to make them aware of property, finance and the various ways and places businesses make money.

Rich Dad's Prophecy (2002)
Rich Dad's Prophecy predicts that the market will crash around 2016 when the oldest Baby Boomers start cashing out their 401(k) plans. Individuals whose savings are locked into 401(k) plans will suffer because these retirement plans are not flexible and do not do well in a bear market.[1]

Why We Want You To Be Rich (2007, with Donald Trump)
Why We Want You To Be Rich is a book co-authored by Robert Kiyosaki and Donald Trump. It encourages individuals to become financially literate to combat the upcoming problems facing America, such as the shrinking middle class and the entitlement mentality.[2]

[edit] Rich Dad Advisor series

The Rich Dad Advisor Series is a series of books published under the Rich Dad Poor Dad trademark, but written on different business topics. These books are seen as more technical in nature as they tend to be written by lawyers, accountants and other professionals. Books in the series include:

* How to Buy and Sell a Business: How You Can Win in the Business Quadrant
* Protecting Your #1 Asset : Creating Fortunes from Your Ideas : An Intellectual Property Handbook
* Sales Dogs : You Do Not Have to Be an Attack Dog to Be Successful in Sales
* Real Estate Riches: How to Become Rich Using Your Banker's Money
* Loopholes of the Rich: How the Rich Legally Make More Money and Pay Less Tax
* Real Estate Loopholes: Secrets of Successful Real Estate Investing
* Rich Dad's Real Estate Advantages: Tax and Legal Secrets of Successful Real Estate Investors
* Own Your Own Corporation: Why the Rich Own Their Own Companies and Everyone Else Works for Them

[edit] Audio/visual

This is a quick list of audio/visual (such as tapes and DVDs) that have been released. Almost all of Robert Kiyosaki's books have been released as audio products:

* Rich Dad's Conspiracy of the Rich - The 8 New Rules of Money
* Rich Dad's Secrets To Money
* You Can Choose To Be Rich: "Think It" "Learn It" "Do It"
* Rich Dad's Roads To Riches: 6 Steps to Becoming a Successful Real Estate Investor
* How To Increase The Income From Your Real Estate Investments
* How To: Find and Keep Good Tenants (Audio)
* How To: Find Great Investments (Audio)
* How To: Get Your Banker To Say "Yes! (Audio)

[edit] Didactic games

Kiyosaki stresses the value of games, particularly Monopoly, as tools for learning basic financial strategies such as "trade four green houses for one red hotel." Kiyosaki has created several games to reinforce the information in his books.

Cashflow 101

"Cashflow 101" is a board game designed by Kiyosaki, which aims to teach the players concepts of investing and making money, it costs $195.

There are two stages to the game. In the first, "the rat race", the player aims to raise his or her character's passive income level to where it exceeds the character's expenses through a variety of investment options. The winner is determined in the second stage, "the fast track." To win, a player must get his character to buy his "dream" or accumulate $50,000 in monthly cash flow.

The game forces the players to do the accounts by themselves. In place of "score cards", there are financial statements. Therefore, players can see more clearly what is happening with their money. It generally shows how assets generate incomes and liabilities and 'doodads' affect expenses.

Basic strategies involved in this game are: buying and selling stocks, Cashflow, Appreciation, and leverage.

Cashflow 202
"Cashflow 202" is a more advanced game than Cashflow 101. It is designed to help players learn about more sophisticated investing strategies. Cashflow 101 was generally meant to teach investing techniques that would work best in an "up market" where property values steadily increase, whereas Cashflow 202 is supposed to teach investment strategies for a fluctuating market where property values depreciate as well as rise.

Strategies involved in this game are: Call, Put, and Short options on stocks, 1031 Real Estate Exchanges, and immediate capital gains vs. longer-term investments.

Cashflow for Kids
"Cashflow for Kids" is basically a children's version of Cashflow 101, good for ages 5 through 9. There is also a Cashflow for Kids e-game available for free.[3]

Cashflow The E-Game
"Cashflow The E-Game" is a computer software version of the Cashflow 101 board game. It is not necessary to have the board game in order to play the computer game.

Cashflow 202 The E-Game
"Cashflow 202 The E-Game" is a software expansion of the computer game "Cashflow The E-Game." Its counterpart is the "Cashflow 202" board game described earlier in this article.

[edit] Rich Dad Education
Wiki letter w.svg This section requires expansion.
[edit] Criticism

In 2009, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation investigated the Rich Dad seminars being conducted on their consumer advocacy program, Marketplace.[4] They found that one-day free seminars were conducted at which three-day courses were offered for $500. At the three-day classes, participants were offered longer courses priced between $12,000 and $45,000. A hidden camera was employed at a $500 seminar in Kitchener, Ontario, showing the trainer, Marc Mousseau, advising participants to request that their credit-card be raised and giving out scripts with instructions for how to ask for limits as high as $100,000.[5]

The show interviewed Bob Aaron,[6] a lawyer whose practice is 25% real estate law,[7] who said that some of Mousseau's advice was unusual and unlikely to work, such as advising that a developer might give two condos free when selling ten, getting an option to buy the house at a later date and buying a house in pre-foreclosure.[5] The program also found a claim by the trainer to be untrue; he claimed to have been part of a deal that made $32 million on a mobile home park in Saskatchewan, but the park did not exist.[4]

When questioned about the findings of the program, Kiyosaki said he was also unhappy about the way the company running the seminars, Tigrent Learning (formerly Whitney International), was conducting them and that these were not the first complaints he had heard and promised to look into the problems.[5]


Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American business magnate, socialite, author and television personality. He is the Chairman and CEO of the Trump Organization, a US-based real-estate developer. Trump is also the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts, which operates numerous casinos and hotels across the world. Trump's extravagant lifestyle and outspoken manner have made him a celebrity for years, a status amplified by the success of his NBC reality show, The Apprentice (where he serves as host and executive producer).

Donald was the fourth of five children of Fred Trump, a wealthy real estate developer based in New York City. Donald was strongly influenced by his father in his eventual goals to make a career in real estate development,[3] and upon his graduation from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1968, Donald Trump joined his father's company, The Trump Organization.

Starting with the renovation of the Commodore Hotel into the Grand Hyatt with the Pritzker family, he continued with Trump Tower in New York City and several other residential projects. Trump would later expand into the airline industry (buying the Eastern Shuttle routes),[4] and Atlantic City casino business, including buying the Taj Mahal Casino from the Crosby family, then taking it into bankruptcy. This expansion, both personal and business, led to mounting debt.[5] Much of the news about him in the early 1990s involved his much publicized financial problems, creditor-led bailout, extramarital affair with Marla Maples, and the resulting divorce from his first wife, Ivana Trump.

The late 1990s saw a resurgence in his financial situation and fame. In 2001, he completed Trump World Tower, a 72-story residential tower across from the United Nations Headquarters.[6] Also, he began construction on Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. Trump owns commercial space in Trump International Hotel and Tower, a 44-story mixed-use (hotel and condominium) tower on Columbus Circle. Trump currently owns several million square feet of prime Manhattan real estate,[7] and remains a major figure in the field of real estate in the United States and a celebrity for his prominent media exposures.

Background and education

Donald Trump is the son of Fred Christ Trump (Woodhaven, New York, October 11, 1905 – June 25, 1999) and wife Mary A. MacLeod (Stornoway, Scotland, May 10, 1912 – August 7, 2000), who married in 1936. His paternal grandparents were German immigrants; his grandfather, Frederick Trump (Kallstadt, Rheinland-Pfalz, March 14, 1869 – March 30, 1918), immigrated to the United States in 1885 and became a naturalized US Citizen in 1892. Frederick married Elisabeth Christ (October 10, 1880 – June 6, 1966)[8] at Kallstadt, Rheinland-Pfalz, in 1902.

Trump attended The Kew-Forest School in Forest Hills, Queens, but after trouble there when he was thirteen, his parents sent him to the New York Military Academy hoping to direct his energy and assertiveness in a positive manner.[9] It worked reasonably well: while at NYMA, in upstate NY, Trump earned academic honors, played varsity football in 1962, varsity soccer in 1963, and varsity baseball from '62-64 (baseball captain '64). The baseball coach, Ted Dobias, a local celebrity for his unselfish work with area youth, awarded him the Coach's Award in '64. Promoted to Cadet Captain-S4 (Cadet Battalion Logistics Officer) his Senior Year, Trump, and Cadet First Sergeant Jeff Donaldson, '65, (West Point '69) formed a composite company of cadets, taught them advanced close-order drill, and marched them all down Fifth Avenue on Memorial Day, 1964.

Trump attended Fordham University for two years before transferring to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. After graduating in 1968 with a Bachelor of Science in economics and concentration in finance, he joined his father's real estate company.

In his book, Trump: The Art of the Deal, Trump discusses his undergraduate career:

"After I graduated from the New York Military Academy in 1964, I flirted briefly with the idea of attending film school...but in the end I decided real estate was a much better business. I began by attending Fordham University...but after two years, I decided that as long as I had to be in college, I might as well test myself against the best. I applied to the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and I got in...I was also very glad to get finished. I immediately moved back home and went to work full time with my father."

Early success (1968–1989)

Trump began his career at his father's company, the Trump Organization, and initially concentrated on his father's preferred field of middle-class rental housing in Brooklyn, Queens and Staten Island. One of Donald's first projects, while he was still in college, was the revitalization of the foreclosed Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio--turning a 1200-unit complex with a 66% vacancy rate to 100% occupancy within a year. When the Trump Organization sold Swifton Village for $12 million, they cleared $6 million in profit.

In 1971 Trump moved his residence to Manhattan, where he became convinced of the economic opportunity in the city, specifically large building projects in Manhattan that would offer opportunities for earning high profits, utilizing attractive architectural design, and winning public recognition.[3] Trump began by landing the rights to develop the old Penn Central yards on the West Side, then—with the help of a 40-year tax abatement by the financially strained New York City government, which was eager to give tax concession in exchange for investments at a time of financial crisis—turned the bankrupt Commodore Hotel into a new Grand Hyatt.[10]

He was also instrumental in steering the development of the Javits Convention Center on property he had an option on. The development saga of the Javits Convention Center brought Donald Trump into contact with the New York City government when a project he'd estimated could have been completed by his company for $110 million ended up costing the city between $750 million to $1 billion. He offered to take over the project at cost but the offer was not accepted.[11]

A similar opportunity would arise in the city's attempt to restore the Wollman Rink in Central Park--a project started in 1980 with an expected 2½-year construction schedule that was still, with $12 million spent, nowhere near completion in 1986. Trump offered to take over the job at no charge to the city, an offer that was initially rebuffed until it received much local media attention. Trump was given the job which he completed in six months and with $750,000 of the $3 million budgeted for the project left over.[12]
Financial problems (1989–1997)

By 1989, the effects of recession left Trump unable to meet loan payments. Trump financed the construction of his third casino, the $1 billion Taj Mahal, primarily with high-interest junk bonds. Although he shored up his businesses with additional loans and postponed interest payments, by 1991 increasing debt brought Trump to business bankruptcy[5] and the brink of personal bankruptcy. Banks and bond holders had lost hundreds of millions of dollars, but opted to restructure his debt to avoid the risk of losing more money in court. The Taj Mahal re-emerged from bankruptcy on October 5, 1991, with Trump ceding 50% ownership in the casino to the original bondholders in exchange for lowered interest rates on the debt and more time to pay it off.[13]

On November 2, 1992, the Trump Plaza Hotel was forced to file a prepackaged Chapter 11 Bankruptcy protection plan after being unable to make its debt payments. Under the plan, Trump agreed to give up a 49% stake in the luxury hotel to Citibank and five other lenders. In return Trump would receive more favorable terms on the remaining $550+ million owed to the lenders and retain his position as chief executive, though he would not be paid and would not have a role in day-to-day operations.[14]

By 1994, Trump had eliminated a large portion of his $900 million personal debt[15] and reduced significantly his nearly $3.5 billion in business debt. While he was forced to relinquish the Trump Shuttle (which he had bought in 1989), he managed to retain Trump Tower in New York City and control of his three casinos in Atlantic City. Chase Manhattan Bank, which lent Trump the money to buy the West Side yards, his biggest Manhattan parcel, forced the sale of a parcel to Asian developers. According to former members of the Trump Organization, Trump did not retain any ownership of the site's real estate - the owners merely promised to give him about 30 percent of the profits once the site was completely developed or sold. Until that time, the owners wanted to keep Trump on to do what he did best: build things. They gave him a modest construction fee and a management fee to oversee the development. The new owners also allowed him to put his name on the buildings that eventually rose on the yards because his well-known moniker allowed them to charge a premium for their condos.[16]

Trump was elected to the Gaming Hall of Fame in 1995.[17]

In 1995, he combined his casino holdings into the publicly held Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts. Wall Street drove its stock above $35 in 1996, but by 1998 it had fallen into single digits as the company remained profitless and struggled to pay just the interest on its nearly $3 billion in debt. Under such financial pressure, the properties were unable to make the improvements necessary for keeping up with their flashier competitors.

Finally, on October 21, 2004, Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts announced a restructuring of its debt.[18] The plan called for Trump's individual ownership to be reduced from 56 percent to 27 percent, with bondholders receiving stock in exchange for surrendering part of the debt. Since then, Trump Hotels has been forced to seek voluntary bankruptcy protection to stay afloat. After the company applied for Chapter 11 Protection in November 2004, Trump relinquished his CEO position but retained a role as Chairman of the Board. In May 2005[19] the company re-emerged from bankruptcy as Trump Entertainment Resorts Holdings.[20]
Resurgence (1997–2007)
Trump announcing David Blaine's latest feat

Trump has several projects under way. The level of success of the progress of the projects varies. The Trump International Hotel and Tower - Honolulu seems to be a success. According to Trump, buyers paid non-refundable deposits to commit to purchase every unit on the first day they were made available. Construction of the Trump International Hotel and Tower - Chicago seems to be proceeding as planned although 30% of the units remain unsold. The Trump International Hotel and Tower - Toronto has had a series of delays and a height reduction. The Trump Tower - Tampa has been quite controversial because the initial sales were so successful that all deposits were returned to charge a higher price. Three years after construction of this controversial development began, construction has delayed and lawsuits have been filed. In Fort Lauderdale, Florida one Trump construction project was put on hold in favor of another (Trump International Hotel and Tower - Fort Lauderdale). Meanwhile, Trump Towers - Atlanta is being developed in a housing market which has the nation's second-highest inventory of unsold homes.[21]
2008 financial crisis

Trump has been caught in the 2008 financial crisis as sales for his Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago have been lagging and he failed to pay a $40m loan to Deutsche Bank in December.[22] Arguing that the crisis is an Act of God, he evoked a clause in the contract to not pay the loan and initiated a countersuit asserting his image has been damaged.[22] Deutsche Bank has in turn noted in court that 'Trump is no stranger to overdue debt' and that he has twice previously filed for bankruptcy with respect to his casino operations.[22]

On February 17, 2009 Trump Entertainment Resorts filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, Mr Trump having stated on February 13 that he would resign from the board.[23] Trump Entertainment Resorts has three properties in Atlantic City.
Future site of Trump International Hotel & Tower, Toronto

In its October 7, 2007 Forbes 400 issue, "Acreage Aces," Forbes valued Trump's wealth to $3.0 billion.[24] Trump is known for his many properties.
Selected completed properties

* Trump World Tower: 845 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY. It is valued at $290 million.
* Trump Tower: 725 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10022 Trump owns the retail and office space on the lower half of this building. It is valued at $288 million.
o Personal Residence: Trump Tower: top 3 floors of Trump Tower with approximately 30,000 square feet (3,000 m²) of space; detailed in bronze, gold, and marble. Worth as much as $50 million, it is one of the most valuable apartments in New York City.
* AXA Financial Center, 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY
* 555 California Street, formerly the Bank of America Center, in San Francisco: When Trump was forced to sell a stake in the railyards on Manhattan's West Side, the Asian group to which he sold then sold much of the site for $1.76 billion. They then reinvested the rest of the money, via a tax-free exchange, into two office buildings: 1290 Avenue of the Americas in Manhattan and 555 California Street in San Francisco (The Group has since sold their stake to Vornado Realty Trust). Trump ended up owning 30% of the two buildings. Based on the recent sales price, Trump's stake is valued at $540 million.
* The Trump Building at 40 Wall Street: Trump bought and renovated this building for about $35 million in 1996. Although Trump claims it is worth $400 million, New York tax assessors value it at only $90 million. Mr. Trump has taken out a $145 million mortgage on this property to use for other investments. Forbes values the property at $260 million.
* Trump Entertainment Resorts: This company owns the Trump branded casino resorts. After a long period of financial trouble, the company entered bankruptcy protection in 2004. Trump agreed to invest $55 million cash in the new company and pay $16.4 million to the company's debtors. In return he holds a 29.16% stake in the new public company. This stake was worth approximately $171 million in October 2006. The following are the Trump branded casino resorts:
o Trump Taj Mahal (Official Site)
o Trump Plaza (Official Site)
o Trump Marina (Official Site)
* Riverside South/Trump Place When completed, Riverside South will be the largest single private development in New York City's history. It was built by the Trump Organization, although financed by investors from Hong Kong and owned by the Hudson Waterfront Company. During his financial difficulties in the mid 90's, Trump was forced to sell this site, the former west side rail-yards. The new owners continued Trump's involvement with the property and sought to use his name to seek higher sales prices. Trump was paid $2 million annually for his oversight of the project, and he was offered an estimated 30% of the net profits upon completion of this 10 year project. The investors sold off the uncompleted project in 2005 for $1.8 billion and offered Mr. Trump $500 million. Trump contends that the property should have been sold for more than $3 billion and in 2006 sued the owners for selling without his consent, and sought $1 billion in damages. Forbes values his stake in the property at $170 million.
* Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago (Official Site), (under construction, anticipated completion is 2009) The entire project is valued at $1.2 billion ($112 million stake for Trump).
* Trump Hotel Las Vegas (Official Site) This is a joint development with fellow Forbes 400 member, Phil Ruffin. Trump's stake is valued at $162 million.

Trump International Hotel and Tower (NY) at Columbus Circle

* Trump International Hotel and Tower New York (Official Site), Trump provided his name and expertise to the building's owner (GE) during the building's re-development in 1994 for a fee totaling $40 million ($25 million for project management and $15 million in incentives deriving from the condo sales). Forbes values Trump's stake at $12 million.
* Trump Park Avenue: Park Avenue & 59th Street. It is valued at $142 million.
* Golf Courses (valued at $127 million):
o Trump currently owns four golf courses in the United States: Trump National Golf Club in Briarcliff Manor, New York, Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster, New Jersey, Trump International Golf Club in West Palm Beach, Florida, and Trump National Golf Club in Los Angeles.
o In 2006, Donald Trump purchased a 1,400-acre (5.7 km2) plot just north of Aberdeen at Menie, Scotland, Trump International Golf Links, with the intention of turning it into a £1 billion golf resort and "the world's best golf course". The development plan included two courses, a 5-star hotel, holiday homes, and a golf academy. Trump wishes the site, once finished, to hold the British Open. There has been opposition from some locals and negative reaction from environmental groups interested in preserving the 4,000-year-old dunes that are designated as an SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest). The development was rejected by the local council's planning subcommitee and is currently going through a planning inquiry with the Scottish Parliament.
o Trump is also building Trump International Golf Club in the Caribbean island of Canouan Island, The Grenadines. The development will include Trump Club Privee, a Monte Carlo inspired casino.
o Trump also builds residential housing developments near these golf clubs. Examples include: The Estates at Trump National in Rancho Palos Verdes, CA, Trump Island Villas on Canouan Island, The Grenadines, and The Residences at Trump National in Westchester County, NY.
* Nike Store: The Niketown store is located in Trump Tower. It is valued at $120 million
* Palm Beach estate: 43,000 square feet (4,000 m²) on a large oceanfront lot in Palm Beach. Trump purchased this property for $40 million at a bankruptcy auction in 2004. Renovations to the property were led by the Season 3 Apprentice Kendra Todd, and Trump sold the property for $100 million in June 2008, making it the most expensive house ever sold in the United States. (The preivous record is $70 million for Ron Perelman's Palm Beach estate in 2004.). Forbes values his stake in the property for $43 million.
* Mar-A-Lago (Official Site), Palm Beach, Florida. Most of this estate has been converted into a private club. This landmark property, according to Trump, has received bids near $200,000,000. However, Forbes magazine does not take into account either of Trump's large vacation residences (Mar-a-Largo or his 213-acre (0.86 km2) spread near Bedford, NY in Westchester County, NY) for its valuation of his wealth.

Real estate licensing

Many developers pay Donald Trump to market their properties and be the public face for their projects. For that reason, Trump does not own many of the buildings that display his name. According to Forbes, this portion of Trump's empire, actually run by his children, is by far his most valuable with a valuation of $562 million. According to Forbes, there are 33 licensing projects under development including seven "condo hotels" (i.e. The seven Trump International Hotel and Tower developments). Some examples are:

* Manhattan:
o Trump Palace: 200 East 69th Street, New York, NY
o Trump Parc and Trump Parc East: Two adjoining buildings on Central Park South on the southwest corner of The Avenue of the Americas. Trump Parc East is a 14-story apartment building and Trump Parc (the former Barbizon Plaza Hotel) is a 38-story condominium building.
o Trump Plaza: 167 East 61st Street, New York, NY ( 39-story, Y-shaped plan condominium building on the Upper East Side)
o 610 Park Avenue (The old Mayfair Hotel): Trump is helping with the construction and development of this property for Colony Capital.
o Trump SoHo (Official Site) Hotel Condominium: A partnership with Bayrock Group to build a 42 story building in Soho.
* New York City suburbs:
o Trump Plaza: Jersey City, NJ. The project includes New Jersey's two tallest residential towers and costs about $450 million. The 55-story tower will have 445 condos, and the 50-story tower will have 417.[25]
o Trump Plaza (New Rochelle) is a 39-story luxury residence and hotel with retail space that is currently under construction in Westchester County, NY with developer Louis R. Cappelli.
o Trump Tower at City Center is a 35-story condominium apartment building built in Westchester County, New York with developer Louis R. Cappelli.
o Trump Parc Stamford is a development in Stamford, Connecticut with F. D. Rich Company and Louis R. Cappelli.
* Florida:
o Trump International Hotel and Tower Fort Lauderdale (Official Site), Anticipated completion is 2007
o Trump Towers (Sunny Isles Beach, Florida): will have over 270 residential condominiums
o Trump Grande Ocean Resort and Residences: A hotel condominium (Trump International Sonesta Beach) and two residential condominium towers (Trump Palace and Trump Royale) located in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida with fellow Forbes 400 member Jorge Perez.
o Trump Hollywood: A 40-story building on Hollywood Beach, Florida with fellow Forbes 400 member Jorge Perez.
o Trump Tower (Palm Beach) will be a 23-story residential condominium development.
* Other domestic:
o Trump Towers (Atlanta): Tower I will be 48 stories and include 370 units while Tower II is still under design.
o Trump Tower (Philadelphia): This 45-story building will offer 263 luxurious condominiums on the Delaware River.
o Trump International Hotel and Tower Waikiki (Official Site), Anticipated completion is 2009
o Trump International Hotel and Tower, New Orleans (Project slated to begin construction during the first quarter of 2007)
* International:
o Trump World: Seoul, Korea for which Trump received a licensing fee of $5 million to lend his name.
o Trump International Hotel and Tower, Toronto (Anticipated completion is 2010)
o The Palm Trump International Hotel and Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
o Trump Ocean Club International Hotel and Tower, Panama City (Anticipated completion is 2009)
o Trump Ocean Resort Baja Mexico was a planned 3 tower, 25 story, 526 unit hotel condominium 30 minutes south of downtown San Diego. This project collapsed due to the project's failure to secure financing.
o Trump at Cap Cana will be located in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic.

In the media
Donald Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Donald Trump, a two-time Emmy Award-nominated personality, has made appearances as a caricatured version of himself in television series and films (e.g. Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, The Nanny, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Days of our Lives), and as a character (The Little Rascals.) He has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. In addition to the aforementioned forms of media he has appeared on, he has been a guest on various talk shows and other media.

In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show, The Apprentice, in which a group of competitors battled for a high-level management job in one of Trump's commercial enterprises. The other contestants were successively "fired" and eliminated from the game. In 2004, Donald Trump filed a trademark application for the catchphrase "You're fired".[1][2][3]

For the first year of the show Trump was paid $50,000 per episode (roughly $700,000 for the first season), but following the show's initial success, he is now paid a reported $3 million per episode, making him one of the highest paid TV personalities.

In December 2006, talk show host Rosie O'Donnell criticized Trump on The View for "acting as a moral compass for 20-year-olds" after giving a second chance to Miss USA, Tara Conner, who had violated pageant guidelines by partying and drinking. Trump, who owns the rights to the pageant, decided to let Conner retain the Miss USA crown while she pursued rehabilitation. O'Donnell called Trump a snake oil salesman and claimed that was bankrupt. A tabloid war raged for several weeks thereafter between the two celebrities.[26] Trump appeared on numerous TV shows slamming O'Donnell, calling her names, threatening to sue her, threatening to take away her partner Kelli and claimed that Barbara Walters regretted hiring O'Donnell. Walters denied the allegations.

In 2007, Trump received an honor for his contribution of The Apprentice to television by receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

In October 2007, Trump appeared on Larry King Live and delivered a strong criticism of then-United States President George W. Bush, particularly concerning the Iraq War. He also predicted that Rudy Giuliani and Hillary Clinton would win the Republican and Democratic Presidential nominations, respectively, and said that he would be very supportive of either of them being elected President. He made further statements about the issue on The Situation Room, in which he said "anybody who wants more troops in Iraq, I don't feel can win an election" as Rudy Giuliani supports that position. On the same show, he was also critical of the public perception of Angelina Jolie as a grand beauty.[27]

On September 17, 2008, Trump officially endorsed John McCain for the U.S. Presidency on Larry King Live.[28]

In November 2009, Trump filmed a cameo scene for the upcoming Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps, the Wall Street sequel, in an unspecified role.[29]
Other ventures
Trump in February 2009

The Miss Universe Organization is owned by Donald Trump and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). The organization produces the Miss Universe, Miss USA, and Miss Teen USA pageants.

Other investments include a 17.2% stake in Parker Adnan, Inc. (formerly AdnanCo Group), a Bermuda-based financial services holdings company. In late 2003, Trump, along with his siblings, sold their late father's real estate empire to a group of investors that included Bain Capital, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, and LamboNuni Bank reportedly for $600 million. Donald Trump's 1/3 share was $200 million, which he later used to finance Trump Casino & Resorts.

With his success in real estate and television, Trump has succeeded in marketing the Trump name on a large number of products. These products include Trump Financial (a mortgage firm), Trump Sales and Leasing (residential sales), Trump University (a business education company)[4], Trump Restaurants (Located in Trump Tower and consisting of Trump Buffet, Trump Catering, Trump Ice Cream Parlor, and Trump Bar), GoTrump[5] (an online travel website), Donald J. Trump Signature Collection (a line of menswear, men's accessories, and watches), Donald Trump The Fragrance (2004), Trump Ice bottled water, Trump Magazine, Trump Golf, Trump Institute, Trump The Game (1989 Board Game), Trump Vodka, and Trump Steaks. In addition, Trump reportedly receives $1.5 million for each one hour presentation he does for the The Learning Annex.[30]

Trump was also involved with the old USFL, a competitor to the NFL, as owner of the New Jersey Generals. In addition, Trump at one time acted as a financial advisor for Mike Tyson and hosted Tyson's fight against Michael Spinks in Atlantic City.

In the 2000 election, Donald Trump considered running for president as a member of the Reform party.

Instituted by Ronna Mee Brand, the Donald J. Trump Award honors and recognizes individuals who make a significant impact on the evolution, development and perpetuation of real estate throughout Greater Los Angeles.

The second annual Donald J. Trump Award was presented December 6, 2007 at the Beverly Hilton, International Ballroom. Tom Gilmore, the first recipient, presented the award to Michael Koss. Donald Trump congratulated Mr. Koss via video broadcast.
World Wrestling Entertainment
Donald Trump and Bobby Lashley shave Vince McMahon bald.

Trump is a known World Wrestling Entertainment fan and friend of WWE owner Vince McMahon. He has hosted two WrestleMania events in the Trump Plaza and has been an active participant in several of the shows. Trump's Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City was host to the 1991 WBF Championship (which was owned by WWE, known at the time as the "World Wrestling Federation."). Trump was interviewed by Jesse Ventura ringside at WrestleMania XX. He also appeared at WrestleMania 23 in the corner of Bobby Lashley who competed against Umaga with WWE Chairman McMahon in his corner, in a hair versus hair match, with either Trump or McMahon having their head shaved if their competitor lost. Lashley won the match, and he and Trump both proceeded to shave McMahon bald.

On June 15, 2009, as part of a storyline, McMahon announced on WWE Raw that he had 'sold' the show to Donald Trump. Appearing on screen, Trump confirmed it and declared he would be at the following commercial-free episode in person and would give a full refund to the people who purchased tickets to the arena for that night's show in the amount of $235,000. McMahon 'bought back' Raw on June 22.
In wrestling

* Entrance Themes
o "Money, Money" by Jim Johnston.

* Accomplishments
o Kayfabe owner of WWE Raw (June 15, 2009 - June 22, 2009)

Golf course

Trump testified in June 2008, as first witness at the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre (AECC) inquiry (ordered by Scottish ministers) after an Aberdeenshire Council committee denied his plans to build a £1billion golf resort north of Aberdeen, at the Menie Estate. Environmental groups and local campaigners opposed the bid in which part of the course would be built on sand dunes that are a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), though business leaders supported the would-be golf course.[31] Trump stated the site "had the potential to be the greatest golf course in the world."[32]

In the fall of 2009, Trump launched The Trump Network, a direct selling vitamin company. The products include PrivaTest, a multi-vitamin, Silhoutte Solution, a series of weight loss products, and QuikStik, mood infusion beverages.[33]
Personal life

Donald Trump is popularly known as The Donald, a nickname given to him by the media after his ex-wife Ivana Trump, a native of the Czech Republic referred to him as such in an interview.[34] He is also known for his catchphrase, "You're Fired", made popular by his television series The Apprentice. Trump is known for his distinctive hairstyle, which he has refused to change throughout his career.
Melania Knauss-Trump

Trump's mother Mary Anne was born on the Isle of Lewis. She left Tong, Na h-Eileanan Siar, Scotland in 1930 aged 18 for a holiday in New York, met a local builder, and stayed. Born in Queens, New York, United States, Trump has four siblings - two brothers (Fred Jr., who is deceased, and Robert) and two sisters (Maryanne and Elizabeth). His older sister, Maryanne Trump Barry, is a federal appeals court judge and the mother of David Desmond, who is a neuropsychologist and writer.

In 1977, Trump married Ivana Zelničkova (later Ivana Trump) and together they have three children: Donald, Jr., Ivanka, and Eric. They were divorced in 1992. In 1993, he married Marla Maples and together they had one child, Tiffany. They divorced on June 8, 1999. In a February 2008 interview on ABC's Nightline Trump commented on his ex-wives by saying, "I just know it's very hard for them (Ivana and Marla) to compete because I do love what I do. I really love it."

On April 26, 2004, he proposed to Melania Knauss (Melanija Knavs in Slovene, later Melania Knauss-Trump) from Slovenia. Trump and Knauss (who is 24 years Trump's junior) married on January 22, 2005, at Bethesda by the Sea Episcopal Church on the island of Palm Beach, Florida, followed by a reception at Trump's Mar-A-Lago estate. Neither Melania nor Trump is an Episcopalian.[35] Melania gave birth to a boy named Barron William Trump, Trump's fifth child. Trump became a grandfather when son Donald Jr. and his wife Vanessa welcomed a daughter named Kai Madison.[36] Trump became a grandfather of two after Donald Jr. and Vanessa had their second child and first son, Donald John Trump III.[37]

Trump is an enthusiastic golfer, with a low single-figure handicap. He is a member of the Winged Foot Golf Club in Mamaroneck, New York, and also plays regularly at the other courses he owns and operates.[38]


Aristotle Sokratis Onassis (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Ωνάσης, Aristotelis Onasis; 15 January 1904 – 15 March 1975), commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a very prominent Greek shipping magnate of the 20th century.[1][2] Some sources claim he was born in 1900 but that he later changed his date of birth so as to avoid deportation from Turkey.[3]

Early life

Onassis was born in Karatass, a suburb of Smyrna in Greek Asia Minor[citation needed] (now İzmir, Turkey) to Socrates and Penelope Onassis (maiden name Penelope Dologu). At the time of his birth, Smyrna had a very significant and prosperous Greek population. Aristotle had one full-sister, Artemis, and two half-sisters, Kalliroi and Merope, who were products of his father's second marriage (after Penelope's death) in 1912. According to the Greek Fire book, released in 2000, Ari's father Socrates Onassis came from a village called Moutalasski, near Cappadocia of Asia Minor, which is the present-day Nevsehir province, in central Turkey. Historically this was an area of king Midas kingdom Phrygia.[4]

Aristotle's father had a fleet of 10 ships with 40 sailors. This enterprise was a financial success enabling him to send Onassis and his sisters to prestigious schools. At the age of 16, Aristotle spoke four languages: Spanish, Turkish, English and Greek.[5]

After being briefly administered by Greece (1919–1922) in the aftermath of the allied victory in World War I, Smyrna was re-taken by Turkey; the Onassis family substantial property holdings were lost, causing them to become refugees fleeing to Greece after the Great Fire of Smyrna[6]. During this period Aristotle lost three uncles and one aunt with her husband Chrysostomos Konialidis and their daughter, who were burned to death when the Turks set fire to a church in Thyatira where 500 Christians were seeking shelter from the Great Fire of Smyrna.

In 1923, Aristotle Onassis left his home country for Buenos Aires, Argentina[7] reportedly, carrying just $60 in his pocket and got his first job with the British United River Plate Telephone Company.
[edit] Business
[edit] Argentina

After hearing from an Argentine film distributor and a senior executive at Paramount in New York reporting the film star Rudolph Valentino saying that everything from the Orient was in evidence at that moment, Onassis had the idea of importing tobacco from Turkey with help from his father Socrates. The tobacco was softer than the Cuban variety, and he was sure it would appeal to women more. After the failure of a contract with Juan Gaona, the director of a huge Argentine company, he turned to making his own cigarettes. After some time managing this business and his job in British United River, he made a considerable amount of money.

His power and influence increased rapidly; he frequently attended important social events, and in 1925 he received both Argentine and Greek citizenship.

According to Peter Evans (his official biographer) and Christian Cafarakis (a former employee)[8] a considerable part of the tobacco was smuggled,[9] which would explain the speed with which he made his first million dollars. In 1928, Onassis traded with Greece US$2,800,000 just four years after his arrival in Argentina. This was due to other illegitimate activities he undertook, like sabotaging his competitor and using the same name of a famous cigarette company: Bis. This last was profitable but ended once the real Bis company sued him.[10]

In 1929 the Greek government announced a 1000% increase in tax of imported products from countries with no trade agreement with their country; this could have ruined Onassis' South American business, as Argentina had little commercial relationships with Greece. With the help of his confidante, Costa Gratsos, a former student of the London School of Economics and descendant of a rich family - the Dracoulis - he wrote a letter to the prime minister of Greece Eleutherios Venizelos. The text was a warning about the damage that the increase in tax could cause to the Greek merchant navy, once 80% of it was used in transport between Europe and Argentina.[11]

The letter made a good impression on the prime minister and he sent Onassis to speak with the foreign minister Andreas Michalakopoulos.[11] The meeting, however, did not go well. Michalakopoulos, who purportedly brushed his nails throughout the meeting, simply rejoindered:

Mr. Onassis, I'm listening to what you say, but this type of thing needs time. I will strongly consider what you have said. You can count on that.[11]

During the next few weeks, Onassis and Michalakopoulos met several times more, and Onassis's hospitality, which usually included generous bribes, finally won Michalakopoulos's support. Onassis once said never to trust a person who did not accept a bribe.[11]

Due to this new friendship Onassis returned to Argentina with a new passport and the encouragement to move his business forward. The Greek government promised not to apply heavy taxes to Argentine trades.[11]

In 1931 again with Michalakopoulos's help, Onassis' connections in Argentina were recognized and he was granted, along with the tax exemptions for the freight ships, the title of Vice Consul.[11]

This title greatly increased the status of Onassis as well as his business. Evans also claims that at the same time Onassis got access to large amounts of money that he exchanged in the black market, in spite of Gratsos' disapproval.[11]
[edit] Success
Statue of Onassis at Nydri, Lefkada.

In 1954, the FBI investigated Onassis for fraud against the U.S. government.[citation needed] He was charged with violating the citizenship provision of the shipping laws which require that all ships displaying the U.S. flag be owned by U.S. citizens. Onassis entered a guilty plea and paid $7 million.[citation needed] He founded Olympic Airways (today Olympic Air), the Greek national carrier, in 1957.

To finance his ships he used a method that he, in his own words, described as utilizing the formula OPM (other people's money).[citation needed] And, much in the same way, he closed contracts to transport ore in ships he did not yet have, and closed several contracts to transport oil via tankers that had not yet been built.[citation needed]

Onassis made large profits when the big petroleum companies like Mobil, Socony, and Texaco signed long-term contracts at fixed prices with him for the use of his fleet, while having trouble managing their own fleet which operated under US flags and thus at high cost.

Onassis' fleet had Panamanian flags and sailed tax-free while operating at low cost. Because of this, Onassis could turn a profit in every transaction, even though he charged one of the lowest prices in the merchant navy market. He could recoup the cost of a tanker with a simple six-month contract.[citation needed] The rest of the service life of the tanker, usually 20 years, yielded high profits.[citation needed]

Onassis fortune consisted of a fleet of freighters and tankers that exceeded the seventy vessels. Stocks that accounted for one-third of the capital of Onassis, in oil companies in the USA, the Middle East, and Venezuela. Additional shares that secured his control of ninety-five multinational businesses on the five continents. Gold processing plants in Argentina and Uruguay. A great share in an airline in Latin America and $4 million dollars worth of investments in Brazil. An electronics company in Japan. Also companies like Olympic Maritime and Olympic Tourist; chemical company in Persia; apartments in Paris, London, Monte Carlo, Athens, Acapulco, a castle in South France; Olympic Tower, a fifty-two story high-rise in Manhattan, another building in Sutton Place; Olympic Airways and Air Navigation; islands Scorpios and Sparta; the yacht "Christina"; and finally, deposit accounts and accounts in treasuries in two hundred and seventeen banks in the whole World.[12]
[edit] Whaling

Between 1950 and 1956, Onassis had much success whale fishing off the Peruvian coast. His first expedition made a net profit of US$4.5 million. That business ended when the Norwegian Whales Gazette made serious accusations based on sailor testimonials, like this one from Bruno Schalaghecke that worked on Olympic Challenger: "Pieces of fresh meat from the 124 whales we killed yesterday still remains on the deck. Among them all, just one could be considered adult. All animals that pass within the range of the harpoon are killed in cold blood"[11]

The venture came to an end after the business was sold to Kyokuyo Hogei Kaisha Whaling Company, one of the biggest Japanese whaling companies, for a sum of US $8.5 million
[edit] The Greek Colonel affair

According to the Evans biography, four days after his marriage with Jacqueline, Onassis was in close discussions with Colonel George Papadopoulos. In the same biography, it is claimed that Papadopoulos was on Onassis' extensive bribe list.[13]

Onassis and Papadopoulos were planning what they referred to as the "greatest business" in Greece. This project involved building an oil refinery, shipyards, power plants, and several aluminium facilities. The project was officially named the Omega Project. The Omega Project was heavily criticized by people like Helen Vlachos, a journalist from Athens who, at the time, declared that Greece was being sold as a "genuine bargain".[13]

The Omega Project negotiations with the Papadopoulos government lasted for months and ended with Onassis losing part of the project to his competitor Stavros Niarchos.[13] The failure was due partly to opposition from influential people within the military junta, such as Ioannis-Orlandos Rodinos, Deputy Minister of the National Economy, who severely opposed Onassis' offers in preference to Niarchos' ones.[13]
[edit] Personal life
[edit] Genealogy
v • d • e
Athina Onassis Roussel
Athina Onassis Roussel's ancestors
Socrates Onassis • Penelope Onassis • Aristotle Onassis
Christina Onassis • Stavros G. Livanos • Arietta Zafirakis • Athina Livanos • Édouard Grinda
Socrates Onassis • Penelope Dologlou
Aristotle Onassis • Artemis Garofalidi
Aristotle Onassis • Athina Mary Livanos
Alexander Onassis, Christina Onassis
Socrates Onassis • Eleni Tzortzoglou
Merope Konialidi • Kallirroi Patronikola
Henri Roussel • Francine Grinda
Christine de Luynes • Patricia Roussel • Thierry Roussel
Jean-Paul Grinda • Françoise
Francine Grinda Roussel • Jean-Noël Grinda • Hélène Grinda Lejeune • Olivier Grinda
Stavros George Livanos • Arietta Zafirakis
Eugenia Livanos • Athina Livanos • George S. Livanos
Skorpios • Christina O • Alexander S. Onassis Foundation
[edit] Relationships and family
[edit] Athina Livanos
Onassis's world-famous yacht, the "Christina" together with its tender, a classic Hacker-Craft

Onassis married Athina Livanos, daughter of shipping magnate Stavros Livanos and Arietta Zafrikakis, on December 28, 1946; their son, Alexander (April 30, 1948 – January 23, 1973), and daughter Christina (December 11, 1950 – November 19, 1988) after whom Onassis named his legendary super-yacht, arguably the most famous private private yacht in the world. Alexander and Christina were both born in New York City.[14]

To Onassis his marriage to Athina was more than the fulfillment of his ambitions. He also felt that the marriage dealt a blow to his father in law and the old-money Greek traditionalists who held Onassis in very low esteem due to his business tactics, such as sailing with a Panamanian flag.[15]

In an exchange with Costa Gratsos, during the wedding, Onassis expressed his desire to prevail over his competitors.[15]

After their divorce, Athina married John Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford. She later married Stavros Niarchos, her sister's widower and Onassis's arch shipping rival.
Onassis financed the construction of the Olympic Tower in New York.
[edit] Maria Callas

Despite the fact they were both married, Onassis and opera diva Maria Callas embarked on a notorious affair.[16] They met each other in 1957 during a party in Venice promoted by Elsa Maxwell. After this first encounter, Ari said to Spyros Skouras: "There [was] just a natural curiosity; after all, we were the most famous Greeks alive in the world".[10]
[edit] Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy

Onassis ended his relationship with Callas to marry Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, on October 20, 1968. They married on Onassis' privately-owned island of Skorpios. It was said[by whom?] that Kennedy insisted on marriage rather than an affair so as to avoid upsetting her children.

According to Peter Evans, Onassis offered Mrs. Kennedy US$3 million for herself and $1m for each son in return for marriage. After Onassis's death she would receive US$150,000 each year for the rest of her life. The whole marital contract was discussed with Ted Kennedy and later reviewed by André Meyer, her financial consultant.

Onassis's daughter Christina made clear that she did not like Jacqueline Kennedy, and after Alexander's death, she convinced Onassis that Jacqueline had some kind of curse due to John and Robert Kennedy's murders. The relations between Aristotle and Jacqueline that were already not good came to an end.[17]
[edit] Death and legacy

Onassis died at age 71, on March 15, 1975 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, of bronchial pneumonia, a complication of the myasthenia gravis that he had been suffering from during the last years of his life.[18] According to his will, his daughter Christina was to inherit 55% of the Onassis fortune while the other 45% were used as funds for the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation set up to honor his son Alexander Onassis.[19] This 45% was the share that his son Alexander would have inherited, had he not died in 1973. Jackie Kennedy also received her share of the estate settling for a reported $10,000,000 ($26 million according to other sources) which was negotiated by her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy (this amount would later grow to several hundred million under the financial stewardship of her companion Maurice Tempelsman). Christina's share has since passed to her only child Athina, making her one of the wealthiest women in the world.

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