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Coca-Cola & pepsi

Coca-Cola
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“Coca-Cola Classic” redirects here. For the NCAA football game, see Coca-Cola Classic (college football).
This article is about the beverage. For its manufacturer, see The Coca-Cola Company.
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Coca-Cola Coca-Cola logo.svg
Type Soft drink (Cola)
Manufacturer The Coca-Cola Company
Country of origin United States
Introduced 1886
Color Caramel E-150d
Flavor Cola, Cola Green Tea, Cola Lemon, Cola Lemon Lime, Cola Lime, Cola Orange and Cola Raspberry.
Variants See Brand portfolio section below
Related products Pepsi
Irn Bru
RC Cola
Cola Turka
Zam Zam Cola
Mecca-Cola
Virgin Cola
Parsi Cola
Qibla Cola
Evoca Cola
Corsica Cola
Breizh Cola
Afri Cola
The Las Vegas Strip World of Coca-Cola museum in 2000

Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines internationally. The Coca-Cola Company claims that the beverage is sold in more than 200 countries.[1] It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company in Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke (a registered trademark of The Coca-Cola Company in the United States since March 27, 1944) or (in European and American countries) as cola or pop.[2] Originally intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton, Coca-Cola was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coke to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century.

The company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. Such bottlers include Coca-Cola Enterprises, which is the largest single Coca-Cola bottler in North America and western Europe. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains to major restaurants and food service distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introduced other cola drinks under the Coke brand name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special editions with lemon, lime or coffee.

In response to consumer insistence on a more natural product, the company is in the process of phasing out E211, or sodium benzoate, the controversial additive used in Diet Coke and linked to DNA damage in yeast cells and hyperactivity in children. The company has stated that it plans to remove E211 from its other products, including Sprite and Oasis, as soon as a satisfactory alternative is found.[3]

History

The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca.[4][5] He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European cocawine.[6]

In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a non-alcoholic version of French Wine Cola.[7] The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[8] It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents[9] a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.[10] Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.[11]

By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola — sold by three separate businesses — were on the market. Asa Griggs Candler acquired a stake in Pemberton's company in 1887 and incorporated it as the Coca Cola Company in 1888.[12] The same year, while suffering from an ongoing addiction to morphine,[13] Pemberton sold the rights a second time to four more businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy and E.H. Bloodworth. Meanwhile, Pemberton's alcoholic[14] son Charley Pemberton began selling his own version of the product.[15]

John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. So, in the summer of 1888, Candler sold his beverage under the names Yum Yum and Koke. After both failed to catch on, Candler set out to establish a legal claim to Coca-Cola in late 1888, in order to force his two competitors out of the business. Candler purchased exclusive rights to the formula from John Pemberton, Margaret Dozier and Woolfolk Walker. However, in 1914, Dozier came forward to claim her signature on the bill of sale had been forged, and subsequent analysis has indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery as well.[16]
Old German Coca-Cola bottle opener

In 1892 Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the current corporation), and in 1910 Candler had the earliest records of the company burned, further obscuring its legal origins. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.[17]

Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The first outdoor wall advertisement was painted in the same year as well in Cartersville, Georgia.[18] Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955.[19] The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. Its proprietor was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design that is now so familiar. Asa Candler was tentative about bottling the drink, but two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899 Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company.[20] The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for the company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.[21]

Coke concentrate, or Coke syrup, was and is sold separately at pharmacies in small quantities, as an over-the-counter remedy for nausea or mildly upset stomach.
New Coke
Main article: New Coke

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed that most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi, but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula, with high-fructose replacing cane sugar, under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985.
21st Century

On February 7, 2005, the Coca-Cola Company announced that in the second quarter of 2005 they planned to launch a Diet Coke product sweetened with the artificial sweetener sucralose ("Splenda"), the same sweetener currently used in Pepsi One.[22][23] On March 21, 2005, it announced another diet product, Coca-Cola Zero, sweetened partly with a blend of aspartame and acesulfame potassium.[24] In 2007, Coca-Cola began to sell a new "healthy soda": Diet Coke with vitamins B6, B12, magnesium, niacin, and zinc, marketed as "Diet Coke Plus."

On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.[25]

In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola." The word "Classic" was truncated because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two.[26] The formula remained unchanged.

In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-ounce bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States.[27] The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image.[27]

In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke.[28]
Use of stimulants in formula

When launched Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes).[29][30]
Coca — cocaine

Pemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola did once contain an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass, but in 1903 it was removed.[31] Coca-Cola still contains coca flavoring.

After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using "spent" leaves — the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with cocaine trace levels left over at a molecular level.[32] To this day, Coca-Cola uses as an ingredient a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.

In the United States, Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant,[33] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, a St. Louis, Missouri pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.[34] Stepan Company buys about 100 metric tons of dried Peruvian coca leaves each year, according to claims by Marco Castillo, spokesman for Peru's state-owned National Coca Co.[35]
Kola nuts — caffeine

Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings (Including Caffeine)."[36] Kola nuts contain about 2 percent to 3.5 percent caffeine, are of bitter flavor and are commonly used in cola soft drinks. In 1911, the U.S. government initiated United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912 the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label.

Coca-Cola contains 46 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces, while Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola and Diet Coke Caffeine-Free contain 0 mg.[37]
Production
A 330 ml Coca-Cola.
Ingredients

* Carbonated water
* Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup depending on country of origin)
* Caffeine
* Phosphoric acid v. Caramel (E150d)
* Natural flavourings[38]

A can of Coke (12 fl ounces/355ml) has 39 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar, approximately 10 teaspoons.[39]), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories.[40]
Bottles of Coca-Cola Zero and Coca-Cola Light
Formula of natural flavorings
Main article: Coca-Cola formula

The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavourings (but not its other ingredients which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula is held in SunTrust Bank's main vault in Atlanta. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company's initial public offering in 1919. A popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula.[41] The truth is that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.[42]
Franchised production model

The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants and food service distributors.[43]

The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, like Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company (CCHBC) and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.[44]

The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".[45]
Brand portfolio
Name Launched Discontinued Notes Picture
Coca-Cola 1886 The original version of Coca-Cola.

Coca-cola 50cl white-bg.jpg
Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola 1983 CaffeineFreeCoke.JPG
Coca-Cola Cherry 1985 Was available in Canada starting in 1996. Called "Cherry Coca-Cola (Cherry Coke)" in North America until 2006. Zero-calorie variant (Coca-Cola Cherry Zero) also currently available.
New Coke/"Coca-Cola II" 1985 2002 Still available in Yap and American Samoa
Coca-Cola with Lemon 2001 2005 Still available in:

American Samoa, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Denmark, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Iceland, Korea, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Réunion, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and West Bank-Gaza

Coca-Cola Vanilla 2002 2005 Still available in:

Austria, Australia, China, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand (600ml only) Malaysia, Sweden (Imported) and Russia. Was called "Vanilla Coca-Cola (Vanilla Coke)" during initial U.S. availability.
CokeVanilla.png
2007 It was reintroduced in June 2007 by popular demand
Coca-Cola C2 2003 2007 Was only available in Japan, Canada, and the United States. CocaCola C2.jpg
Coca-Cola with Lime 2005 Available in Belgium, Netherlands, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Coke with lime.jpg
Coca-Cola Raspberry June 2005 End of 2005 Was only available in New Zealand.
Coca-Cola Zero 2005 Coca Cola Zero 02.jpg
Coca-Cola M5 2005 Only available in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Italy, Spain, Mexico and Brazil
Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla 2006 Middle of 2007 Was replaced by Vanilla Coke in June 2007 Cc-bcv.jpg
Coca-Cola Blāk 2006 Beginning of 2008 Only available in the United States, France, Canada, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Lithuania
Coca-Cola Citra 2006 Only available in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, New Zealand and Japan.
Coca-Cola Light Sango 2006 Only available in France and Belgium.
Coca-Cola Orange 2007 Only available in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar Coke with Orange.jpg
Logo design
U.S. containers as of 2008[update]. Sizes vary from 8 US fl oz (240 mL) to 2 L (68 US fl oz), shown in cans and glass and plastic bottles.

The famous Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885.[46] Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid 19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.[47]
Contour bottle design

The equally famous Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, but known to some as the "hobble skirt" bottle, was created in 1915 by bottle designer Earl R. Dean. In 1915, the Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for the beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was."[48]
Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle

Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned back to the plant to show Mr. Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Chapman Root gave Dean his approval.[48]
The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.

Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.[49]

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November, 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for the Coca-Cola Company. Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".[50]

As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.

Although endorsed by some[who?], this version of events is not considered authoritative by many[who?] who consider it implausible. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.[51]

In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Traynor's concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.[52]

In 1997, Coca-Cola also introduced a "contour can," similar in shape to its famous bottle, on a few test markets, including Terre Haute, Indiana.[53] The new can has never been widely released.

A new slim and tall can began to appear in Australia as of December 20, 2006, it cost AU$1.95. The cans have a distinct resemblance to energy drinks that are popular with teenagers. The cans were commissioned by Domino's Pizza and are available exclusively at their restaurants.

In January 2007, Coca-Cola Canada changed "Coca-Cola Classic" labeling, removing the "Classic" designation, leaving only "Coca-Cola." Coca-Cola stated this is merely a name change and the product remains the same. The cans still bear the "Classic" logo in the United States.
The very first Coca-Cola trademark, filed May 14, 1892
The original Coca-Cola logo, trademarked at the USPTO, and used by Coca-Cola Enterprises

Coca-Cola is a registered trademark in most countries. The U.S. trademark for "Coca-Cola" was first filed on May 14, 1892 with the description "nutrient or tonic beverages".[54] This filing became a registered United States trademark on January 31, 1893 and continues to be renewed through the end of December 2009.[54] In the UK, Coca-Cola was registered with the UK Patent Office on July 11, 1922, under registration number 427817.

In 2007, Coca-Cola introduced an aluminum can designed to look like the original glass Coca-Cola bottles.

In 2007, the company's logo on cans and bottles changed. The cans and bottles retained the red color and familiar typeface, but the design was simplified, leaving only the logo and a plain white swirl (the "dynamic ribbon").

In 2008, in some parts of the world, the plastic bottles for all Coke varieties (including the larger 1.5- and 2-liter bottles) was changed to include a new plastic screw cap and a slightly taller contoured bottle shape, designed to evoke the old glass bottles.[55]
Coke Mini
A 200ml "stubby" bottle widely available throughout China. These are sold in small shops for 1 yuan, and must be consumed on site in order to return the bottle.

Coke mini is a 7.5 ounce can packaging of Coca-Cola that debuted in December 2009.[56][57][58] There are plans to also sell smaller cans of Sprite, Fanta Orange, Cherry Coca-Cola and Barq's Root Beer.[59]
Local competitors

Pepsi is usually second to Coke in sales, but outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. Around the world, some local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a fast-growing competitor to Coca-Cola.[60] On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season.[61] In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales.[62] In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993.[63] As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India.[64] Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola, popular in the Middle East, are competitors to Coca-Cola. In Turkey, Cola Turka is a major competitor to Coca-Cola. In Iran and many countries of Middle East, Zam Zam Cola and Parsi Cola are major competitors to Coca-Cola. In some parts of China Future cola is a competitor. In Slovenia, the locally produced Cockta is a major competitor to Coca-Cola, as is the inexpensive Mercator Cola, which is sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator. In Israel, RC Cola is an inexpensive competitor. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar , is a serious competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. Laranjada is the top-selling soft drink on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Coca-Cola has stated that Pepsi was not its main rival in the UK, but rather Robinsons drinks.[citation needed]
Advertising
An 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th century attire. The ad is titled Drink Coca-Cola 5¢.
Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Note older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax and telephone ads.
Coca-Cola hoarding in Lahore, Pakistan

Coca-Cola's advertising has significantly affected American culture, and it is frequently credited with inventing the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in a red-and-white suit. Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the 1930s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom, the motif was already common.[65] Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to use the modern image of Santa Claus in its advertising: White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923, after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915.[66][67]

Before Santa Claus, Coca-Cola relied on images of smartly dressed young women to sell its beverages. Coca-Cola's first such advertisement appeared in 1895, featuring the young Bostonian actress Hilda Clark as its spokeswoman.

1941 saw the first use of the nickname "Coke" as an official trademark for the product, with a series of advertisements informing consumers that "Coke means Coca-Cola".[68]

In 1971, a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing," produced by Billy Davis, became a hit single.

Coke's advertising is pervasive, as one of Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta, where Coke was born.
Coca-Cola sales booth on the Cape Verde island of Fogo in 2004.

Some of the memorable Coca-Cola television commercials between 1960 through 1986 were written and produced by former Atlanta radio veteran Don Naylor (WGST 1936–1950, WAGA 1951–1959) during his career as a producer for the McCann Erickson advertising agency. Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes and popular singers.

During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi." Statisticians were quick to point out the problematic nature of a 50/50 result: most likely, all the taste tests really showed was that in blind tests, most people simply cannot tell the difference between Pepsi and Coke. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market.

Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from 1989 till the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company. In 1994, to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.[69]

The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982, and began inserting Coke-product images in many of its films. After a few early successes during Coca-Cola's ownership, Columbia began to under-perform, and the studio was sold to Sony in 1989.

Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes," "I'd like to buy the world a Coke," and "Coke is it" (see Coca-Cola slogans).

In 2006, Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards, a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website. These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries.[70]
Holiday campaigns
Coca-Cola Christmas truck in Germany

The "Holidays are coming!" advertisement features a train of red delivery trucks, emblazoned with the Coca-Cola name and decorated with electric lights, driving through a snowy landscape and causing everything that they pass to light up and people to watch as they pass through.[71]

The advertisement fell into disuse in 2001, as the Coca-Cola company restructured its advertising campaigns so that advertising around the world was produced locally in each country, rather than centrally in the company's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia.[72] However, in 2007, the company brought back the campaign after, according to the company, many consumers telephoned its information center saying that they considered it to mark the beginning of Christmas.[71] The advertisement was created by U.S. advertising agency Doner, and has been part of the company's global advertising campaign for many years.[73]

Keith Law, a producer and writer of commercials for Belfast CityBeat, was not convinced by Coca-Cola's reintroduction of the advertisement in 2007, saying that "I don't think there's anything Christmassy about HGVs and the commercial is too generic."[74]

In 2001, singer Melanie Thornton recorded the campaign's advertising jingle as a single, Wonderful Dream (Holidays are Coming), which entered the pop-music charts in Germany at no. 9.[75][76] In 2005, Coca-Cola expanded the advertising campaign to radio, employing several variations of the jingle.[77]
Sports sponsorship
Special aluminum bottle designs, designed exclusively for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games Torch Relay. Available in Canada.

Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.[78] This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. Most recently, Coca-Cola has released localized commercials for the 2010 Olympics in Vancouver; one Canadian commercial referred to Canada's hockey heritage and was modified after Canada won the gold medal game on February 28, 2010 by changing the ending line of the commercial to say "Now they know whose game they're playing".[79]

Since 1978, Coca-Cola has sponsored each FIFA World Cup, and other competitions organised by FIFA. In fact, one FIFA tournament trophy, the FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997, was called "FIFA — Coca Cola Cup".[80] In addition, Coca-Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 and Coke Zero 400 for the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina and Daytona International Speedway in Daytona, Florida. Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League, as well as with many teams within those leagues. Coca-Cola is the official soft drink of many collegiate football teams throughout the nation.

Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the 1996 Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent. Coca Cola is also one of the associate sponsor of Delhi Daredevils in Indian Premier League.

In England, Coca-Cola is the main sponsor of The Football League, a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in football (soccer). It is also responsible for the renaming of these divisions — until the advent of Coca-Cola sponsorship, they were referred to as Divisions One, Two and Three. Since 2004, the divisions have been known as The Championship (equiv. of Division 1), League One (equiv. of Div. 2) and League 2 (equiv. of Division 3). This renaming has caused unrest amongst some fans, who see it as farcical that the third tier of English Football is now called "League One." In 2005, Coca-Cola launched a competition for the 72 clubs of the football league — it was called "Win a Player". This allowed fans to place 1 vote per day for their beloved club, with 1 entry being chosen at random earning £250,000 for the club; this was repeated in 2006. The "Win A Player" competition was very controversial, as at the end of the 2 competitions, Leeds United AFC had the most votes by more than double, yet they did not win any money to spend on a new player for the club. In 2007, the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola Zero or Coca-Cola and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website {www.coca-colafootball.co.uk}. This code could then earn anything from 50p to £100,000 for a club of their choice. This competition was favored over the old "Win A Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money.

Introduced March 1, 2010, in Canada, to celebrate their 2010 Olympics, Coca Cola will sell gold coloured cans in packs of 12 355 mL each, in select stores[81].
In mass media

Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in countless films and television programs. It was a major plot element in films such as One, Two, Three, The Coca-Cola Kid, and The Gods Must Be Crazy. It provides a setting for comical corporate shenanigans in the novel Syrup by Maxx Barry. And in music, in the Beatles' song, "Come Together", the lyrics said, "Coca-Cola, he say...".
Health effects

Since studies indicate "soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet",[82] most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[83] The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence.[84] A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men).[85] This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.

The use of Coca-Cola has also been associated with an increase of tumors in laboratory rats, based on research by the Ramazzini Foundation[86] in 2006.

A common criticism of Coke based on its allegedly toxic acidity levels has been found to be baseless by researchers; lawsuits based on these notions have been dismissed by several American courts for this reason. Although numerous court cases have been filed against The Coca-Cola Company since the 1920s, alleging that the acidity of the drink is dangerous, no evidence corroborating this claim has been found. Under normal conditions, scientific evidence indicates Coca-Cola's acidity causes no immediate harm.[87]

Since 1985 in the U.S., Coke has been made with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) instead of the more expensive cane-sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of HFCS because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.[88] Also, a 2009 study found that almost half of tested samples of commercial HFCS contained mercury, a toxic substance.[89]

In India, there is a major controversy whether there are pesticides and other harmful chemicals in bottled products, including Coca-Cola. In 2003 the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organization in New Delhi, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India, including multinational giants PepsiCo and Coca-Cola, contained toxins including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyrifos — pesticides that can contribute to cancer and a breakdown of the immune system. CSE found that the Indian produced Pepsi's soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca-Cola's soft drink was found to have 30 times the permitted amount. CSE said it had tested the same products sold in the U.S. and found no such residues.[90] After the pesticide allegations were made in 2003, Coca-Cola sales in India declined by 15 percent. In 2004 an Indian parliamentary committee backed up CSE's findings and a government-appointed committee was tasked with developing the world's first pesticide standards for soft drinks. The Coca-Cola Company has responded that its plants filter water to remove potential contaminants and that its products are tested for pesticides and must meet minimum health standards before they are distributed.[91] In the Indian state of Kerala sale and production of Coca-Cola, along with other soft drinks, was initially banned after the allegations, until the High Court in Kerala overturned ruled that only the federal government can ban food products. Coca-Cola has also been accused of excessive water usage in India.[92]

The 2008 Ig Nobel Prize (a parody of the Nobel Prizes) in Chemistry was awarded to Sheree Umpierre, Joseph Hill, and Deborah Anderson, for discovering that Coca-Cola is an effective spermicide,[93] and to C.Y. Hong, C.C. Shieh, P. Wu, and B.N. Chiang for proving it is not.[94][95]
Criticism
Main article: Criticism of Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola has been criticised for alleged adverse health effects, its aggressive marketing to children exploitative labor practices, high levels of pesticides in its products, building plants in Nazi Germany which employed slave labor, environmental destruction, monopolistic business practices, and hiring paramilitary units to murder trade union leaders. In October 2009, in an effort to improve their image, Coca-Cola partnered with the American Academy of Family Physicians, providing a $500,000 grant to help promote healthy-lifestyle education; the partnership spawned sharp criticism of both Coca-Cola and the AAFP by physicians and nutritionists.[96]
Use as a political and corporate symbol
Coke dispenser flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1996
Coca-Cola advertising in the High Atlas mountains (Morocco).

The Coca-Cola drink has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America. The identification with the spread of American culture has led to the pun "Coca-Colanization".[97] The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca-Cola Company.

There are some consumer boycotts of Coca-Cola in Arab countries due to Coke's early investment in Israel during the Arab League boycott of Israel (its competitor Pepsi stayed out of Israel).[98] Mecca Cola and Pepsi have been successful alternatives in the Middle East.

A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-2 or FGBA-2) was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as "a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation". The unit flew in 1996 aboard STS-77 and held 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke.[99]

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Coca-Cola atau Coke adalah minuman bersoda kola yang dijual di berbagai restoran, toko, dan mesin pengecer di lebih dari 200 negara. Minuman ini diproduksi oleh The Coca-Cola Company. Coke adalah salah satu merek yang paling dikenal dan paling luas penjualannya. Saingan utamanya adalah Pepsi.

Sejarah

Coca-Cola pertama kali diperkenalkan pada tanggal 8 Mei 1886 oleh John Styth Pemberton, seorang ahli farmasi dari Atlanta, Georgia, Amerika Serikat. Dialah yang pertama kali mencampur sirup karamel yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Coca-Cola. Frank M. Robinson, sahabat sekaligus akuntan John, menyarankan nama Coca-Cola karena berpendapat bahwa dua huruf C akan tampak menonjol untuk periklanan. Kemudian, ia menciptakan nama dengan huruf-huruf miring mengalir, Spencer, dan lahirlah logo paling terkenal di dunia.

Dr. Pemberton menjual ciptaannya dengan harga 5 sen per gelas di apotiknya dan mempromosikan produknya dengan membagi ribuan kupon yang dapat ditukarkan untuk mencicipi satu minuman cuma-cuma. Pada tahun tersebut ia menghabiskan US$46 untuk biaya periklanan. Pada tahun 1892, Pemberton menjual hak cipta Coca-Cola ke Asa G. Chandler yang kemudian mendirikan perusahaan Coca-Cola pada 1892.

Chandler piawai dalam menciptakan perhatian konsumen dengan cara membuat berbagai macam benda-benda cinderamata berlogo Coca-Cola. Benda-benda tersebut kemudian dibagi-bagi di lokasi-lokasi penjualan penting yang berkesinambungan. Gaya periklanan yang inovatif, seperti desain warna-warni untuk bus, lampu gantung hias dari kaca, serta serangkaian cinderamata seperti kipas, tanggalan dan jam dipakai untuk memasyarakatan nama Coca-Cola dan mendorong penjualan.

Upaya mengiklankan merek Coca-Cola ini pada mulanya tidak mendorong penggunaan kata Coke, bahkan konsumen dianjurkan untuk membeli Coca-Cola dengan kata-kata berikut: "Mintalah Coca-Cola sesuai namanya secara lengkap; nama sebutan hanya akan mendorong penggantian produk dengan kata lain". Tetapi konsumen tetap saja menghendaki Coke, dan akhirnya pada tahun 1941, perusahaan mengikuti selera popular pasar. Tahun itu juga, nama dagang Coke memperoleh pengakuan periklanan yang sama dengan Coca-Cola, dan pada tahun 1945, Coke resmi menjadi merek dagang terdaftar.
[sunting] Jenis-jenis Coca-Cola

The Coca-Cola Company juga telah memperkenalkan beberapa minuman kola lainnya dibawah merek Coke. Yang paling terkenal adalah Diet Coke, yang telah menjadi kola diet utama. Selain itu, ada juga Caffeine free Coke, Cherry Coke, Coke ZERO, Vanilla Coke, dan edisi khusus lainnya dengan lemon, jeruk limau, dan bahkan kopi.
Coca-Cola dalam kemasan botol

* New Coke (Baru)
* Diet Coke (Tanpa gula)
* Coca-Cola C2
* Coca-Cola Zero (Penuh rasa, tanpa gula)
* Cherry Coke (Rasa buah ceri)
* Vanilla Coke (Rasa vanilli)
* Coca-Cola with Lime (Jeruk nipis)
* Raspberry Coke (Rasa frambus)

[sunting] Lihat pula

* The Coca-Cola Company
* The World of Coca-Cola
* Mecca Cola
* Fanta
* Sprite

[sunting] Kampanye Open Happiness (Buka Semangat Baru)

Musik memainkan peran sentral dalam kampanye. Lagu Open Happiness berdasarkan pada awalnya ditampilkan dalam iklan televisi untuk pasar Amerika. Lagu ini dirilis sebagai single. Ini adalah kolaborasi antara Cee-Lo dari Gnarls Barkley, Patrick Stump dari Fall Out Boy, Brendon Urie from Panic! at the Disco, Travis McCoy from Gym Class Heroes, Janelle Monae, dengan Polow Da Don dan Butch Walker sebagai produser.[1] Disutradarai oleh sutradara pemenang penghargaan, Alan Ferguson,[2] video klip untuk lagunya diluncurkan di MTV pada bulan Juli 2009.[3]

Teh Coca-Cola Company pada Mei 2009 mengumumkan bahwa ikon pop Lebanon Nancy Ajram merekam versi bahasa Arab dari Open Happiness, yang disebut "Eftah Tefrah", yang dirilis di pasar Timur Tengah.[4] The Coca-Cola Perusahaan kemudian mulai memasarkan Open Happiness tema untuk pasar Asia Timur pada Juni 2009. Lagu Open Happiness ini disesuaikan dengan bahasa Kanton untuk di Hong Kong; lagu yang dinyanyikan oleh bintang pop Hong Kong Joey Yung di negara versi dari lagu dan video musik.[5] Sebuah versi dari lagu untuk Singapura dirilis kemudian di bulan yang sama, yang dinyanyikan oleh bintang pop lokal Derrick Jocie Guo Holt. Video klipnya difilmkan oleh Warner Music.[6] Pada bulan Juli 2009 Open Happiness ini diluncurkan di China, di mana versi lokal dari lagu ini direkam oleh penyanyi dan pencipta lagu Cina Wang Leehom.[7] Lagu masuk dalam urutan lagu di Amerika Serikat, Selandia Baru, Perancis, Uni Emirat Arab, dan Australia. Di Cina, lagu secara bersamaan mencapai nomor peringkat pertama di beberapa tangga musik.[3][8]

Pada bulan November 2009, The Coca-Cola Company meluncurkan versi Indonesia Open Happiness, dengan judul "Buka Semangat Baru". Lagu ini dinyanyikan oleh Ello, Ipang, dan Berry dari grup hip-hop/rock Saint Loco, dan bintang pop Indonesia-Filipina, Lala Kartodirjo.[9]

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Pepsi

Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. The drink was first made in the 1890s by pharmacist Caleb Bradham in New Bern, North Carolina. The brand was trademarked on June 16, 1903. There have been many Pepsi variants produced over the years since 1898.

Origins
The pharmacy of Caleb Bradham, with a Pepsi dispenser, as portrayed in a New Bern exhibition in the Historical Museum of Bern.

It was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern, North Carolina in 1898 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his pharmacy where the drink was sold. It was later named Pepsi Cola, possibly due to the digestive enzyme pepsin and kola nuts used in the recipe.[1] Bradham sought to create a fountain drink that was delicious and would aid in digestion and boost energy.[2]

In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles, and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race".[3] The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was then used over the next two decades. In 1926, Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the original design of 1905. In 1929, the logo was changed again.

In 1931, at the depth of the Great Depression, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy - in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark.[4] Eight years later, the company went bankrupt again. Pepsi's assets were then purchased by Charles Guth, the President of Loft Inc. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after Coke refused to give him a discount on syrup. Guth then had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula.

On three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, the Coca-Cola Company was offered the opportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company and it declined on each occasion.[5]
Pepsi-Cola trademark

The original trademark application for Pepsi-Cola was filed on September 23, 1902 with registration approved on June 16, 1903. In the application's statement, Caleb Bradham describes the trademark as an, "arbitrary hyphenated word "PEPSI-COLA," and indicated that the mark was in continuous use for his business since August 1, 1901. The Pepsi-Cola's description is a flavoring-syrup for soda water. The trademark expired on April 15, 1994.[6]

A second Pepsi-Cola trademark is on record with the USPTO. The application date submitted by Caleb Bradham for the second trademark is Saturday, April 15, 1905 with the successful registration date of April 15, 1906, over three years after the original date. Curiously, in this application, Caleb Bradham states that the trademark had been continuously used in his business "and those from whom title is derived since February 15, 1896." While Pepsi-Cola was filed in the same category of personal and legal and social services in both applications, in the 1905 application the description submitted to the USPTO was for a tonic beverage. The federal status for the 1905 trademark is registered and renewed and is owned by Pepsico, Inc. of Purchase, New York.[7]
Branding

The original stylized Pepsi-Cola logo, trademarked at the USPTO, and owned by the Pepsi Company


The second stylized Pepsi-Cola logo, trademarked at the USPTO, and owned by PepsiCo


Pepsi logo (1973-87). In 1987, the font was modified slightly to a more rounded version which was used until 1991. this logo was used for pepsi throwback in 2010


Pepsi logo (2003-08). Originally the Pepsi script was written above the globe; it would be moved below the globe when Pepsi redesigned the packaging in 2007 for the "Design Pepsi Can" contest. Pepsi Wild Cherry continued to use this design through the first quarter of 2010.
Rise

During the Great Depression, Pepsi gained popularity following the introduction in 1936 of a 12-ounce bottle. Initially priced at 10 cents, sales were slow, but when the price was slashed to five cents, sales increased substantially. With a radio advertising campaign featuring the jingle "Pepsi-Cola hits the spot / Twelve full ounces, that's a lot / Twice as much for a nickel, too / Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you," arranged in such a way that the jingle never ends. Pepsi encouraged price-watching consumers to switch, obliquely referring to the Coca-Cola standard of six ounces per bottle for the price of five cents (a nickel), instead of the 12 ounces Pepsi sold at the same price.[8] Coming at a time of economic crisis, the campaign succeeded in boosting Pepsi's status. In 1937 500,000,000 bottles of Pepsi were consumed. From 1936 to 1938, Pepsi-Cola's profits doubled.[9]

Pepsi's success under Guth came while the Loft Candy business was faltering. Since he had initially used Loft's finances and facilities to establish the new Pepsi success, the near-bankrupt Loft Company sued Guth for possession of the Pepsi-Cola company. A long legal battle, Guth v. Loft, then ensued, with the case reaching the Delaware Supreme Court and ultimately ending in a loss for Guth.
Niche marketing
1940s advertisement specifically targeting African Americans

Walter Mack was named the new President of Pepsi-Cola and guided the company through the 1940s. Mack, who supported progressive causes, noticed that the company's strategy of using advertising for a general audience either ignored African Americans or used ethnic stereotypes in portraying blacks. He realized African Americans were an untapped niche market and that Pepsi stood to gain market share by targeting its advertising directly towards them.[10] To this end, he hired Hennan Smith, an advertising executive "from the Negro newspaper field"[11] to lead an all-black sales team, which had to be cut due to the onset of World War II. In 1947, Mack resumed his efforts, hiring Edward F. Boyd to lead a twelve-man team. They came up with advertising portraying black Americans in a positive light, such as one with a smiling mother holding a six pack of Pepsi while her son (a young Ron Brown, who grew up to be Secretary of Commerce)[12] reaches up for one. Another ad campaign, titled "Leaders in Their Fields", profiled twenty prominent African Americans such as Nobel Peace Prize winner Ralph Bunche and photographer Gordon Parks.

Boyd also led a sales team composed entirely of blacks around the country to promote Pepsi. Racial segregation and Jim Crow laws were still in place throughout much of the U.S.; Boyd's team faced a great deal of discrimination as a result,[11] from insults by Pepsi co-workers to threats by the Ku Klux Klan.[12] On the other hand, they were able to use racism as a selling point, attacking Coke's reluctance to hire blacks and support by the chairman of Coke for segregationist Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge.[10] As a result, Pepsi's market share as compared to Coke's shot up dramatically. After the sales team visited Chicago, Pepsi's share in the city overtook that of Coke for the first time.[10]

This focus on the market for black people caused some consternation within the company and among its affiliates. They did not want to seem focused on black customers for fear white customers would be pushed away.[10] In a meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, Mack tried to assuage the 500 bottlers in attendance by pandering to them, saying, "We don't want it to become known as a nigger drink."[13] After Mack left the company in 1950, support for the black sales team faded and it was cut.
Marketing
Pepsi logo (1973-87). In 1987, the font was modified slightly to a more rounded version which was used until 1991. this logo was used for pepsi throwback in 2010
Pepsi logo (2003-2008). Pepsi Wild Cherry and Pepsi ONE continued to use this design through March 2010.
Photo of a Pepsi can.
Pepsi bottle in Mexico. As of November 2009 thru early 2010, this logo was still in use in Mexico and most countries. This Pepsi logo was last used in Canada in May 2009.

In 1975, Pepsi introduced the Pepsi Challenge marketing campaign where PepsiCo set up a blind tasting between Pepsi-Cola and rival Coca-Cola. During these blind taste tests the majority of participants picked Pepsi as the better tasting of the two soft drinks. PepsiCo took great advantage of the campaign with television commercials reporting the results to the public.[14]

In 1976 Pepsi, RKO Bottlers in Toledo, Ohio hired the first female Pepsi salesperson, Denise Muck, to coincide with the United States bicentennial celebration.

In 1996, PepsiCo launched the highly successful Pepsi Stuff marketing strategy. By 2002, the strategy was cited by Promo Magazine as one of 16 "Ageless Wonders" that "helped redefine promotion marketing."[15]

In 2007, PepsiCo redesigned their cans for the fourteenth time, and for the first time, included more than thirty different backgrounds on each can, introducing a new background every three weeks.[16] One of their background designs includes a string of repetitive numbers 73774. This is a numerical expression from a telephone keypad of the word "Pepsi."

In late 2008, Pepsi overhauled their entire brand, simultaneously introducing a new logo and a minimalist label design. The redesign was comparable to Coca-Cola's earlier simplification of their can and bottle designs. Also in 4th quarter of 2008 Pepsi teamed up with Google/YouTube to produce the first daily entertainment show on Youtube, Poptub. This daily show deals with pop culture, internet viral videos, and celebrity gossip. Poptub is updated daily from Pepsi.

Since 2007, Pepsi, Lay's, and Gatorade have had a "Bring Home the Cup," contest for Canada's biggest hockey fans. Hockey fans were asked to submit content (videos, pictures or essays) for a chance at winning a party in their hometown with the Stanley Cup and Mark Messier.

In 2009, "Bring Home the Cup," changed to "Team Up and Bring Home the Cup." The new installment of the campaign asks for team involvement and an advocate to submit content on behalf of their team for the chance to have the Stanley Cup delivered to the team's hometown by Mark Messier.

Pepsi has official sponsorship deals with three of the four major North American professional sports leagues: the National Football League, National Hockey League and Major League Baseball. Pepsi also sponsors Major League Soccer.

Pepsi also has sponsorship deals in international cricket teams. The Pakistan cricket team is just one of the teams that the brand sponsors. The team wears the Pepsi logo on the front of their test and ODI test match clothing.

On July 6, 2009, Pepsi announced it would make a $1 billion investment in Russia over three years, bringing the total Pepsi investment in the country to $4 billion.[17]

In July 2009, Pepsi started marketing itself as Pecsi in Argentina in response to its name being mispronounced by 25% of the population and as a way to connect more with all of the population.[18]

In October 2008, Pepsi announced that it would be redesigning its logo and re-branding many of its products by early 2009. In 2009, Pepsi, Diet Pepsi and Pepsi Max began using all lower-case fonts for name brands, and Diet Pepsi Max was re-branded as Pepsi Max. The brand's blue and red globe trademark became a series of "smiles," with the central white band arcing at different angles depending on the product. Pepsi released this logo in U.S. in late 2008, and later it was released in 2009 in Canada (the first country outside of the United States for Pepsi's new logo), Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Colombia, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Australia; in the rest of the world the new logo will be released in 2010, meaning the old logo has been phased out entirely (most recently, France and Mexico switched to Pepsi's current logo). As of Present, The UK has started to use the new pepsi logo on cans in an order different from the US can.

Pepsi and Pepsi Max cans and bottles in Australia now carry the localised version of the new Pepsi Logo. The word Pepsi and the logo are in the new style, while the word "Max" is still in the previous style. Pepsi Wild Cherry has finally received the 2008 Pepsi design in March 2010.
Rivalry with Coca-Cola
Main article: Cola Wars

According to Consumer Reports, in the 1970s, the rivalry continued to heat up the market. Pepsi conducted blind taste tests in stores, in what was called the "Pepsi Challenge". These tests suggested that more consumers preferred the taste of Pepsi (which is believed to have more lemon oil, less orange oil, and uses vanillin rather than vanilla) to Coke. The sales of Pepsi started to climb, and Pepsi kicked off the "Challenge" across the nation. This became known as the "Cola Wars."

In 1985, The Coca-Cola Company, amid much publicity, changed its formula. The theory has been advanced that New Coke, as the reformulated drink came to be known, was invented specifically in response to the Pepsi Challenge. However, a consumer backlash led to Coca-Cola quickly introducing a modified version of the original formula (removing the expensive Haitian lime oil and changing the sweetener to corn syrup)[citation needed] as Coke "Classic".

According to Beverage Digest's 2008 report on Carbonated Soft Drinks (CSD), PepsiCo's U.S. market share is 30.8 percent, while The Coca-Cola Company's is 42.7 percent.[19] Coca-Cola outsells Pepsi in most parts of the U.S., notable exceptions being central Appalachia, North Dakota, and Utah. In the city of Buffalo, New York, Pepsi outsells Coca-Cola by a two-to-one margin.[20]

Overall, Coca-Cola continues to outsell Pepsi in almost all areas of the world. However, exceptions include India; Saudi Arabia; Pakistan (Pepsi has been a dominant sponsor of the Pakistan cricket team since the 1990s); the Dominican Republic; Guatemala the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island; and Northern Ontario.[21]

Pepsi had long been the drink of Canadian Francophones and it continues to hold its dominance by relying on local Québécois celebrities (especially Claude Meunier, of La Petite Vie fame) to sell its product.[22] PepsiCo use the slogan "here, it's Pepsi" (Ici, c'est Pepsi) to answer to Coca-cola publicity "Everywhere in the world, it's Coke" (Partout dans le monde, c'est Coke).

By most accounts, Coca-Cola was India's leading soft drink until 1977 when it left India after a new government ordered The Coca-Cola Company to turn over its secret formula for Coke and dilute its stake in its Indian unit as required by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). In 1988, PepsiCo gained entry to India by creating a joint venture with the Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991 when the use of foreign brands was allowed; PepsiCo bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994. In 1993, The Coca-Cola Company returned in pursuance of India's Liberalization policy.[23] In 2005, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo together held 95% market share of soft-drink sales in India. Coca-Cola India's market share was 52.5%.[24]
A sticker from a USSR-produced Pepsi bottle.

In Russia, Pepsi initially had a larger market share than Coke but it was undercut once the Cold War ended. In 1972, Pepsico company struck a barter agreement with the then government of the Soviet Union, in which Pepsico was granted exportation and Western marketing rights to Stolichnaya vodka in exchange for importation and Soviet marketing of Pepsi-Cola.[25] [26] This exchange led to Pepsi-Cola being the first foreign product sanctioned for sale in the U.S.S.R.[27]

Reminiscent of the way that Coca-Cola became a cultural icon and its global spread spawned words like "coca colonization", Pepsi-Cola and its relation to the Soviet system turned it into an icon. In the early 1990s, the term "Pepsi-stroika" began appearing as a pun on "perestroika", the reform policy of the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev. Critics viewed the policy as a lot of fizz without substance and as an attempt to usher in Western products in deals there with the old elites. Pepsi, as one of the first American products in the Soviet Union, became a symbol of that relationship and the Soviet policy.[28] This was reflected in Russian author Victor Pelevin's book "Generation P".

In 1989, Billy Joel mentions the rivalry between the two companies in the song "We Didn't Start The Fire". The line "Rock & Roll and Cola Wars" refers to Pepsi and Coke's usage of various musicians in their advertising campaigns. Coke used Paula Abdul, while Pepsi used Michael Jackson. They then continued to try to get other musicians to advertise their beverages.

In 1992, following the Soviet collapse, Coca-Cola was introduced to the Russian market. As it came to be associated with the new system, and Pepsi to the old, Coca-Cola rapidly captured a significant market share that might otherwise have required years to achieve. By July 2005, Coca-Cola enjoyed a market share of 19.4 percent, followed by Pepsi with 13 percent.[29]

Pepsi did not sell soft drinks in Israel until 1992. Many Israelis and some American Jewish organizations attributed Pepsi's previous reluctance to do battle to the Arab boycott. Pepsi, which has a large and lucrative business in the Arab world, denied that. It said economic rather than political reasons kept it out of Israel.[30]
Slogans
Old logo still in use in Pepsi Tins made in Pakistan.
A large advertisement made to resemble a Pepsi cup at Nickelodeon Universe in the Mall of America.

* 1939–1950: "Twice as Much for a Nickel"
* 1950: "More Bounce to the Ounce"
* 1950–1957: "Any Weather is Pepsi Weather"
* 1957–1958: "Say Pepsi, Please"
* 1958–1961: "Be Sociable, Have a Pepsi"
* 1961-1963: "Now It's Pepsi for Those Who Think Young" (jingle sung by Joanie Sommers)
* 1963–1967: "Come Alive, You're in the Pepsi Generation" (jingle sung by Joanie Sommers)
* 1967–1969: "(Taste that beats the others cold) Pepsi Pours It On".
* 1969–1975: "You've Got a Lot to Live, and Pepsi's Got a Lot to Give"
* 1975–1977: "Have a Pepsi Day"
* 1977–1980: "Join the Pepsi People (Feeling Free)"
* 1980–1981: "Catch That Pepsi Spirit" [David Lucas, composer]
* 1981–1983: "Pepsi's got your taste for life"
* 1983: "It's cheaper than Coke!"
* 1983–1984: "Pepsi Now! Take the Challenge!"
* 1984–1991: "Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation" (commercial with Michael Jackson and The Jacksons, featuring Pepsi version of Billie Jean)
* 1984-1988: "Diet Pepsi. The Choice of a New Generation"
* 1988-1989: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste That's Generations Ahead"
* 1989-1990: "Diet Pepsi. The Right One"
* 1989-1992: "Diet Pepsi. The Taste That Beats Diet Coke"
* 1986–1987: "We've Got The Taste" (commercial with Tina Turner)
* 1987–1990: "Pepsi's Cool" (commercial with Michael Jackson, featuring Pepsi version of Bad)
* 1990–1991: "You got the right one Baby UH HUH" (sung by Ray Charles for Diet Pepsi)
* 1990–1991: "Yehi hai right choice Baby UH HUH" (Hindi - meaning "This is the right choice Baby UH HUH") (India)
* 1991–1992: "Gotta Have It"/"Chill Out"
* 1992–1993: "Be Young, Have Fun, Drink Pepsi"
* 1993–1994: "Right Now" Van Halen song for the Crystal Pepsi advertisement.
* 1994–1995: "Double Dutch Bus" (Pepsi song sung by Brad Bentz)
* 1995: "Nothing Else is a Pepsi"
* 1995–1996: "Drink Pepsi. Get Stuff." Pepsi Stuff campaign
* 1996–1997: "Pepsi:There's nothing official about it" (During the Wills World Cup (cricket) held in India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka)
* 1997–1998: "Generation Next" - with the Spice Girls.
* 1998–1999: "It's the cola" (100th anniversary commercial)
* 1999–2000: "For Those Who Think Young"/"The Joy of Pepsi-Cola" (commercial with Britney Spears/commercial with Mary J. Blige)
* 1999-2006: "Yeh dil maange more" (Hindi - meaning "This heart asks for more") (India)
* 2003: "It's the Cola"/"Dare for More" (Pepsi Commercial)
* 2005–2006: "An ice cold Pepsi. It's better than sex!" (Larry Sypolt)
* 2006–2007: "Why You Doggin' Me"/"Taste the one that's forever young" Commercial featuring Mary J. Blige
* 2007–2008: "More Happy"/"Taste the once that's forever young" (Michael Alexander)
* 2008: "Pepsi Stuff" Super Bowl Commercial (Justin Timberlake)
* 2008: "Рepsi is #1" Тv commercial (Luke Rosin)
* 2008–present: "Something for Everyone."
* 2009–present: "Refresh Everything"/"Every Generation Refreshes The World"
* 2009–present: "Yeh hai youngistaan meri jaan" (Hindi - meaning "This is our young country my baby") (India)
* 2009–present: "My Pepsi My Way"(India)
* 2009–present: "Refresca tu Mundo" (Spanish - meaning "Refresh your world") (Spanish Spoken countries in Latin America)
* 2010-present: "Every Pepsi refreshes the world."
* 2010-present "Pepsi. Sarap Magbago." (Philippines)

Pepsiman

Pepsiman is an official Pepsi mascot from Pepsi's Japanese corporate branch. The design of the Pepsiman character is attributed to Canadian comic book artist Travis Charest, created sometime around the mid 1990s. Pepsiman took on three different outfits, each one representing the current style of the Pepsi can in distribution. Twelve commercials were created featuring the character. His role in the advertisements is to appear with Pepsi to thirsty people or people craving soda. Pepsiman happens to appear at just the right time with the product. After delivering the beverage, sometimes Pepsiman would encounter a difficult and action oriented situation which would result in injury.

In 1996, Sega-AM2 released the Sega Saturn version of their arcade fighting game Fighting Vipers. In this game Pepsiman was included as a special character, with his specialty listed as being the ability to "quench one's thirst". He does not appear in any other version or sequel. In 1999, KID developed a video game for the PlayStation entitled Pepsiman. As Pepsiman, the player runs, skateboards, rolls, and stumbles through various areas, avoiding dangers and collecting cans of Pepsi all while trying to reach a thirsty person as in the commercials.
Colas

* Pepsi Cherry Vanilla: PepsiCo's New Cherry Vanilla soda (Launching May 2010 in the USA)
* Pepsi 'Edge': PepsiCo's Drink (Vanilla flavored discontinued.)
* Pepsi: PepsiCo's signature cola flavor and its namesake cola.
* Diet Pepsi: artificial-sweetener variant
* Pepsi Free: The first major-brand caffeine-free cola introduced in 1982. Currently marketed as Caffeine-Free Pepsi and Caffeine-Free Diet Pepsi.
* Pepsi Max: Low-calorie, sugar-free version of Pepsi.
* Crystal Pepsi: Clear cola; sold from 1992–1993.

* Crystal from Pepsi: Citrus-flavored reformulation of Crystal Pepsi.
* Pepsi Clear: Clear soda released in Mexico as a limited edition during Christmas 2005, the Mexican equivalent of Crystal Pepsi

* Pepsi AM: Increased caffeine; marketed as a morning drink. Sold 1989–1990.
* Pepsi Boom: Caffeine, sugar and artificial sweetener-free. Sold in Germany, Italy and Spain
* Pepsi Fresh: Introduced Summer 2007
* Pepsi Natural (Pepsi Raw in United Kingdom): Containing only "natural ingredients". Released in select markets in U.S. and Mexico in 2009.
* Pepsi Shiso: Introduced only in Japan as a limited edition for Summer 2009, it's transparent green. Size: 147ml can, price:147 yen. Also available in 500ml plastic bottles. Shiso in English is "labiate" or "perilla".
* Pepsi NEX: Zero calories. Distributed by Suntory.
* Pepsi Blue: Blue-colored berry-flavored soda. Available 2002–2004 in the U.S.; remains available in other countries.
* Pepsi Blue Hawaii: Blue-colored, pineapple and lemon flavored. Released in Japan.
* Pepsi Carnival: Tropical fruit-flavored, Introduced in Japan for a limited time Summer 2006. Later released as Pepsi Summer Mix in 2007 in the U.S.
* Pepsi Fire: Limited edition, cinnamon-flavored. Sold in Guam, Saipan, Thailand, Mexico, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines.
* Pepsi Gold: Gold-colored, ginger-flavored variant available as part of a 2006 FIFA World Cup and ICC Cricket World Cup 2007 promotion. Sold in Southeast Asia, Central Europe and Russia.
* Pepsi Green: Bright-green variety introduced in Thailand in early 2009.
* Pepsi Holiday Spice: Seasonal, cinnamon-flavored variant available Fall 2004 and 2006 in the U.S. and Canada.
* Christmas Pepsi: Similar to Holiday Spice, with nutmeg and cocoa added to the ingredients list. Available during 2007–2008 holiday seasons.
* Pepsi Ice: Icy mint flavor. Sold in Guam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines. In Summer 2007, Pepsi used the name Pepsi Ice in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for a limited edition cola with apple flavor.

Pepsi Ice Cucumber

* Pepsi Ice Cucumber: Limited edition green, cucumber-flavored Pepsi sold in Japan in Summer 2007.
* Pepsi Jazz: Jazz with Black Cherry and French Vanilla, Jazz with Strawberries and Cream, and Caramel Cream made in 2006.
* Pepsi Kona, Coffee-flavored, test-marketed on the U.S. East Coast.
* Pepsi Kick, Regular formula, with Ginseng and higher amount of caffeine. Uses the recent Pepsi logo. Sold only in Latin America.
* Lemon Pepsi: Lemon-flavored, available as a promotion for the beginning of the 2008 NFL season.
* Pepsi Lime: Lime-flavored, introduced in Spring 2005.
* Pepsi Limón: Lime-flavored, released in Mexico in 2002. Re-introduced as Pepsi Twist in 2004, since discontinued.
* Pepsi A-ha: Lemon-flavored, sold in India.
* Pepsi ONE: One-calorie Pepsi. Introduced in 1997.
* Pepsi Raging Razzberry: Raspberry-flavored, available in 1991.
* Pepsi Raw: British name for Pepsi Natural
* Pepsi Red: Spicy, ginger-flavored. Released in Japan in 2006.
* Pepsi Retro: With "natural" ingredients (sugar cane and kola nut extract). Released in Mexico in February 2008, relaunched as Pepsi Natural in August 2009.
* Pepsi Samba: Tropical-flavored (mango and tamarind). Introduced in Australia in 2005.
* Pepsi Si: Marketed in predominantly Hispanic areas.
* Pepsi Strawberry Burst
* Pepsi Summer Chill: Apple-flavored, sold in Poland during Summer 2007. Marketed as Pepsi Ice in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
* Pepsi Summer Mix: Pepsi with tropical fruit flavors. Available in 2007 in limited areas.
* Pepsi Throwback: Sweetened with sugar instead of high-fructose corn syrup, no citric acid, and in retro-styled packaging. Brought back in December 2009 for 8 weeks after fan requests.[31]
* Pepsi Tropical Chill
* Pepsi Tropical: Tropical-flavored, available in the U.S., U.K. and Japan in late 1994.
* Pepsi Twist: Lemon-flavored
* Pepsi Twist Mojito: Mojito and lemon-flavored. Non-alcoholic. Sold in Italy.
* Pepsi Twistão: Strong lemon flavor, sold during summertime in Brazil. "Twistão", in Portuguese, is the augmentative of "Twist".
* Pepsi Vanilla: Vanilla-flavored, released in Canada and the U.S. in 2003 in response to Vanilla Coke. Discontinued. Marketed as Pepsi Ice Cream in Russia.
* Pepsi White: Yogurt-flavored, available in Japan .
* Pepsi Wild Cherry: Cherry-flavored, introduced in 1988 as "Wild Cherry Pepsi". Changed name and formula in 2005.
* Pepsi X Energy Cola: Guarana and a higher amount of caffeine. Reddish color. Available in several countries.
* Pepsi 100: Available in 1998 for the anniversary of the drink and in 2003 for the anniversary of the name "Pepsi".

Ingredients

Pepsi is made with carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, caramel color, sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, citric acid and natural flavors. A can of Pepsi (12 fl ounces) has 41 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar), 30 mg of sodium, 0 grams of fat, 0 grams of protein, 38 mg of caffeine and 150 calories. [32][33] The caffeine-free Pepsi-Cola contains the same ingredients but without the caffeine.

The original Pepsi-Cola recipe was available from documents filed with the court at the time that the Pepsi-Cola Company went bankrupt in 1929. The original formula contained neither cola nor caffeine.
Competitors

* Coca-Cola
* R.C. Cola


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Pepsi
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Pepsi-Cola, lebih sering disebut Pepsi, adalah merek minuman ringan yang diproduksi oleh PepsiCo dan dijual di seluruh dunia melalui toko, restoran, dan mesin penjual. Minuman ini dibuat pertama kali pada 28 Agustus 1898 oleh ahli farmasi Caleb Bradham. Merek ini menjadi merek dagang pada 16 Juni 1903. Terdapat beberapa varian Pepsi, antara lain Diet Pepsi, Pepsi Max, Pepsi Samba, Pepsi Blue dan Pepsi Gold.

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